Cuban Missile Crisis Essays (Examples)

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Cuban Missile

Words: 5521 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6435999

Cuban Missile Crisis

There are two views, as with any conflict or issue, on the reasons and reactions of the major players in the Cuban Missile Crisis that took place at the end of October 1962. The crisis pitted two world powers, the United States and the Soviet Union, against each other in what many describe as the closest the world has come to World War III and a nuclear holocaust.

In order to understand the Crisis, it is important to first understand the events leading up to the crisis. This paper examines the background of the crisis from the Cuban/Soviet point-of-view in depth. Toward the end of the paper, the United States' perspective of the crisis is discussed with regard to what is described previously from the perspective of supporters of the Castro regime and the now collapsed Soviet Union.

ackground

After the devastation that the bombs left in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders," 20 November 1975. The National Security Archives. 147.

Bay of Pigs: Forty Years After," Chronology, National Security Archives (Cuban Problems 11 December 1959), 24 June 2004. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/bayofpigs/chron.html.

Bay of Pigs." Cuban History: Missile Crisis. Marxists.org. 25 June 2003. http://www.marxists.org/history/cuba/subject/missile-crisis/index.htm.

Crisis de Octubre: Cronologia." Informe Especial: 1960 and 1961. Centro de Estudios Sobre America.
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Diplomatic Problems The Cuban Missile

Words: 2791 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98385838

Many did not agree with this action because Senators Fulbright and Russell believed it would lead to an air strike on est Berlin or a blockade of that city. They knew it would lead to war. Kennedy had few choices but instead did not back down and lead the country through the crisis. He never "lost sight of the fact that once military action started, there was no telling at what level of escalation it could be stopped" (Stern 2003, p. 108).

Timing caused many of the problems Kennedy faced during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Many critics surmise the failure of the blockade but really its lack of strength came down to the fact Kennedy hesitated because he waited for OAS approval. This allowed for Soviet ships to arrive safely to Cuba before the escalation and this represents weakness on Kennedy's part. hy couldn't have acted aggressively? He was not…… [Read More]

Works Cited

1997. Cuban Missile Crisis Left Kennedy with Little Choice But to Act, Congressional

Leaders No Help To President. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 21. Oct.

Bennis, W. 1989. On Becoming a Leader. Reading, Massachusetts:

Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
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Cuban Five Criminals or Antiterrorist

Words: 3160 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81834807

Cuban Five -- Criminals or Antiterrorists

The Cuban Five

Why the Trial Was Unfair

The Aftermath of the Trial

The Implications of This Trial on the elations between Cuba and the U.S.A.

Cuban Five as Criminals

The Five as Antiterrorists

Whether the Cuban Five are terrorists or not has to be seen from an international perspective that is impartial and takes into consideration the viewpoints of the Cubans as well as the Americans. The question has gained particular relevance in light of the international protests that consider the Cuban Five as antiterrorists and not criminals. According to obert Pastor the National Security Adviser for Latin America in President Jimmy Carter's time:

"Holding a trial for five Cuban intelligence agents in Miami is about as fair as a trial for an Israeli intelligence agent in Tehran. You'd need a lot more than a good lawyer to be taken seriously."

This says…… [Read More]

References

Campbell, D. (2008, January 9). Society has Become More Punitive. The Guardian .

Denny, P. (1993). UNITED STATES: Cuban Five ruling a "travesty of justice." Retrieved December 10, 2011, from Green Left.com: http://www.greenleft.org.au/node/35107

Mears, B. (2009, Janaury 30). 'Cuban Five' file appeal with Supreme Court . Retrieved December 10, 2011, from CNN: http://articles.cnn.com/2009-01-30/justice/scotus.cuban.five_1_ramon-labanino-cuban-five-gerardo-hernandez?_s=PM:CRIME

Nobel prize winner and 110 British demand the Cuban Five's liberation. (2006, February 9). Retrieved December 10, 2011, from http://www.cubaminrex.cu/english/five%20of%20Portal/2006/Nobel%20prize%20winner.htm
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Cuban Politics Cuba Is Considered

Words: 2232 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84721252

Therefore, for the international scene to actually consider that change is taking place in Cuba none of Fidel Castro's men should be part of the government or the administration.

In trying to establish an ascendant trend for the Cuban national and international image, Raul Castro must also deal with the issue of totalitarian rule and that of the state authoritarian leadership in a different manner that one which destroys his authority as state ruler. However, any such measures must include a combination of the implementation of slow democratic measures, and the maintenance of a certain authority especially from the perspective of any political forces that may rise against the system. This is part of the model implemented in China, whose aim was precisely that of controlling the political power while being committed to opening up to foreign investments and western influence.

The international reaction to the rise of Raul Castro…… [Read More]

Bibliography

CBS. U.S.: Raul Castro a "Fidel Lite" Ailing Communist Leader Resigns Post; Fidel's 76-Year-old Brother, Raul, the Heir Apparent. 2008. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/02/19/world/main3843492.shtml?source=RSSattr=HOME_3843492

Ratliff, William. Raul, China, and Post-Fidel Cuba. Raul Castro will likely implement Chinese-style, market-oriented economic reforms. 2006. 10 March 2008 http://www.latinbusinesschronicle.com/app/article.aspx?id=369

Shlaes, Amity. "Cuba Crisis is Avoidable if Bush Can Copy Poppy." Bloomberg. 2008. http://www.cfr.org/publication/15543/cuba_crisis_is_avoidable_if_bush_can_copy_poppy.html?breadcrumb=%2Fregion%2F213%2Fcuba

Sweig, Julia E. "Fidel's Final Victory." Foreign Affairs. 2007. http://www.cfr.org/publication/12362/
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Crisis as Robert Kennedy Reveals

Words: 1066 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31211771

S. wanted Europe to respect its boundaries, but had no intention of respecting Europe's:

Imagine, Mr. President, what if we were to present to you such an ultimatum as you have presented to us by your actions. How would you react to it? I think you would be outraged at such a move on our part. And this we would understand…Our ties with the Republic of Cuba, as well as our relations with other nations, regardless of their political system, concern only the two countries between which these relations exist. And, if it were a matter of quarantine as mentioned in your letter, then, as is customary in international practice, it can be established only by states agreeing between themselves, and not by some third party. Quarantines exist, for example, on agricultural goods and products. However, in this case we are not talking about quarantines, but rather about much more…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kennedy, Robert. Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis. NY: W.W.

Norton & Company, 1999. Print.

"Khruschev Letter to President Kennedy." Web. 10 Nov 2011.

Perkins, John. Confessions of an Economic Hit Man. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-
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Truman in Hypothetical Crisis as

Words: 5310 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62428097

Kennedy recognizes the need to establish a bond with all the South American leaders, thereby isolating Chavez-Chavez politically as ineffective leader in South America. Kennedy perceived the Third orld in terms of the "national military establishment," and vulnerable to the manipulations of the Soviet Union (Schwab, Orrin, 1998, 1). Kennedy had already gone around with Cuba, and did not wish to repeat his mistakes in Venezuela, but he also had no intention of surrendering Venezuela to the Soviet Union in the way in which Cuba had been surrendered before him.

President Kennedy saw South American diplomacy as the route to turning Venezuela away from bonding with the Soviet Union. He recognized that he could not alienate the rest of South America from the United States, or that would drive them into the sphere of Venezuela's influence over them towards the Soviet Union.

Kennedy calls a meeting with Chavez-Chavez, in private,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown, Seyom. Faces of Power. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100986354

Clark, General Wesley K. Waging Modern War: Bosnia, Kosovo, and the Future of Combat. New York: Public Affairs, 2001. Questia. 15 Nov. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100986356.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=65362550

DeConde, Alexander. A History of American Foreign Policy. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1963. Questia. 15 Nov. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=65362550.
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Mobilisation Crisis and War the

Words: 689 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86649137

One of the most famous crises that was based on misinterpretation and a zero-sum game was the 1960's Cuban Missile Crisis when misperceptions or fake induced information could have led from a crisis to a conflict and a war.

Conflict in the international arena is often lead by perceptions and power politics games that often are not based on realistic evidence. Conflict is nonetheless a measurable phenomena as many conflicts are also based on other issues than misperceptions, power needs or behavioral changes in a country's leadership. These are different economic interests over material goods, like oil or gas, positional goods like political influence or territorial.

More and more, international relations theorists and analyzers have looked within countries and systems to understand the international arena. The internal struggles for power, equilibrium and social welfare are as important in the development of world politics as the aforementioned types of causes. From…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Jacoby, T. (2008) Understanding Conflict and Violence. New York: Routledge

Waltz, K. (2001) Man, the State, and the War. New York: Columbia University Press
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Intelligence the Success of U S

Words: 339 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55558986

This flexibility gave U.S. intelligence agencies an advantage over their Soviet counterparts, who were unable to demonstrate a similar capacity for rapid and effective responses to the circumstances of the crisis ("Intelligence in the Cuban Missile Crisis"). Finally, and most surprisingly, the U.S. intelligence community retained a remarkable ability to take actions that were not heavily influenced by the political climate of the nation. Rather than being influenced by the political platforms of politicians, the intelligence community focused on the matter at hand, to great effect ("Intelligence in the Cuban Missile Crisis"). These three factors were most influential in the successful actions of the U.S. intelligence community during the Cuban Missile Crisis.

orks Cited

Intelligence and the Cuban Missile Crisis." The atson Institute for International Studies. 1998. 15 Oct. 2007 http://www.watsoninstitute.org/pub_detail.cfm?id=139.

Intelligence in the Cuban Missile Crisis." Everything2. 23 Feb. 2006. 15 Oct. 2007 http://everything2.com/index.pl-node_id=17884497.… [Read More]

Works Cited

Intelligence and the Cuban Missile Crisis." The Watson Institute for International Studies. 1998. 15 Oct. 2007 http://www.watsoninstitute.org/pub_detail.cfm?id=139.

Intelligence in the Cuban Missile Crisis." Everything2. 23 Feb. 2006. 15 Oct. 2007 http://everything2.com/index.pl-node_id=17884497.
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Cold War Leadership Study in Contrasts

Words: 853 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63125388

Kennedy and Khruschev

The Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962 is widely considered to be the moment when the Cold ar between the U.S.A. And the U.S.S.R. came closest to outright hostility and indeed nuclear war. hat is most interesting about the Cuban Missile Crisis in retrospect is its strategic handling by the two national leaders involved, Nikita Khrushchev and John F. Kennedy. I hope by an examination of the correspondence exchanged by these two leaders during the period to demonstrate that Kennedy's handling of the crisis, while marked by some errors, was more responsible than Khrushchev's. In some sense, the Cuban Missile Crisis began as an irresponsible gamble by Khrushchev: if he exhibited some clever statesmanship during the crisis, this does not erase the fact that it was begun by him as an attempt to take advantage of a perceived weakness on Kennedy's part that was not ultimately there.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kennedy, John F. And Khrushchev, Nikita. "Kennedy-Khrushchev Exchanges." Loyola University. Web. Accessed 25 April 2014 at:  http://www.loyola.edu/departments/academics/political-science/strategic-intelligence/intel/FRUS-6.html
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Olmec Although Scientists Found Artifacts and Art

Words: 5404 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63467824

Olmec

Although scientists found artifacts and art objects of the Olmecs; until this century they did not know about the existence of the Olmecs. Most of the objects which were made by this community were associated with other civilizations, such as Mayan, Toltec or Chichimecan. The Olmec lived between 1600 B.C. And 1400 B.C. In South Mexico. The name of this tribe comes from an Aztec word "ollin" which means "land of rubber."

At first they ate fish and they later start to farm, and that made it possible for them to "develop the first major civilization in Mesoamerica." (The Olmec Civilization) Thanks to the steady food supplies the Olmec population grew and some came to have other occupations. "Some became potters or weavers. Others became priests or teachers." (Ibidem) Once the population grew, so did their farming villages which developed into cities. The present-day city of San Lorenzo was…… [Read More]

References:

1. The Olmec Civilization, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Pleasant Valley School website: http://www.pvsd.k12.ca.us/180120521134440680/lib/180120521134440680/11-2_SG_7th.pdf

2. Villeacas, Daniel, Mother Culture of Mexico: The Olmecs, Denver Public Schools, 2005, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Denver Public Schools website:  http://etls.dpsk12.org/documents/Alma/units/MotherCultureMexicoOlmecs.pdf 

3. Olmec -- Masterworks of Ancient Mexico, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Los Angeles County Museum of Art website:  http://www.lacma.org/eduprograms/EvesforEds/OlmecEssay.pdf 

4. Hansen, Valerie, Curtis Kenneth, Curtis, Kenneth R., Voyages in World History: To 1600, Volume 1, Cengage Learning, December 30, 2008
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U S History and Foreign Policy

Words: 3087 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44277503

The events leading to the Vietnam conflict were determined by the administration in place at that time (VIETNAM CONFLICT (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam_War).

Initially it was decided that Vietnam would be occupied by Chinese and British troops and that they would supervise the surrender of Japan.

In 1960 Hanoi instructed the southern communists to establish an organization called the national liberation front. The purpose of this organization was to overthrow the government of the south. The organization was made up of two groups. The intellectuals of the South and who opposed the foundation of the government of South Viet Nam and the communists who had remained in the south after the partition.

The Di-m government was initially able to cope with the insurgency with the aid of U.S. advisers, and by 1962 seemed to be winning. Senior U.S. military leaders were receiving positive reports from the U.S. commander, Gen. Paul D. Harkins of…… [Read More]

References

CONTAINMENT of SOVIET UNION

http://www.foreignaffairs.org/19870301faessay7847/george-f-kennan/containment-40-years-later-containment-then-and-now.html

An Outline of American History (1994) http://www.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1994/ch11_p5.htm

CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
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U S Foreign Affairs Since 1898

Words: 3090 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8617183

President Johnson became even more fearful of a communist take-over.

In 1964, when two American ships were attacked by the North Vietnamese in the Gulf of Tonkin "the American Senate gave Johnson the power to give armed support to assist any country requesting help in defense of its freedom," effectively beginning the Vietnam War without a formal declaration of war (BBC 2009). The wide-scale bombing of the North in 'Operation olling Thunder' began in February 1965. By March 1965, the first American ground troops had landed in South Vietnam and by December 1965, there were 150,000 servicemen stationed in the country (BBC 2009).

ichard Nixon was elected to the presidency in 1968, promising a policy of Vietnamization or the taking-over of the war against the North by native Vietnamese troops. However, it would be four more years before substantial withdrawals of American servicemen occurred. Nixon also supported dictators in Laos…… [Read More]

References

An overview of the crisis. (1997). The Cuban Missile Crisis. Crisis Center. Thinkquest.

Retrieved January 1, 2009 at http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/index.html

The Berlin Airlift. (2010). Cold War Museum. Retrieved January 1, 2009 at  http://www.coldwar.org/articles/40s/berlin_airlift.asp 

Chang, Laurence & Peter Kornbluh. (1998). A national security archive documents reader.
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Negotiation the Power of Negotiation

Words: 952 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41540420

S.S.R. wanted to be the instigators of a nuclear conflagration. Kennedy had to find out what the other side really wanted. (Ury, 1993, p.12) in 1962, the Soviet Union lagged behind the United States militarily, as Soviet missiles were only powerful enough to be launched against Europe but U.S. missiles were capable of striking the entire Soviet Union. Thus, Khrushchev had used intermediate-range missiles in Cuba because a "deployment in Cuba would double the Soviet strategic arsenal and provide a real deterrent to a potential U.S. attack against the Soviet Union," once the missiles were assembled ("An Overview of the Crisis," the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1997). In short, the U.S.S.R. wanted security, and security would also mean a safe, and a face-saving way out of the current situation.

Step 4: Reframe

Kennedy shifted to openness, from secrecy, and declared that any nuclear action launched from Cuba against a nation of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

An Overview of the Crisis." The Cuban Missile Crisis. 1997. 23 Feb 2007. http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/index.html

Discovery." The Cuban Missile Crisis. 1997. 23 Feb 2007. http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/discovery.html

Ends of a Rope." The Cuban Missile Crisis. 1997. 1997. 23 Feb 2007. http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/rope.html

Public Phase." The Cuban Missile Crisis. 1997. 1997. 23 Feb 2007. http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/public.html
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Criminal Justice - Intelligence Does

Words: 2835 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93963443



The major participants in the Cuban Missile Crisis were in many ways driven by intelligence information to make the decisions upon which the crisis centered. The Soviet Union and its puppet nation Cuba relied on the heavy detail they received from their own agencies and believed that as a result of the failure and humiliation of the U.S. during the infamous Bay of Pigs incident that America would be blind at worst to its nuclear build up in Cuba and impotent at best. "At the time of the crisis, the United States possessed many more weapons than the Soviet Union, and thus had a military advantage. Khrushchev had formulated the plan...when he was searching for a place to install nuclear warheads that could not be detected by the U.S. early warning system..." ("Cuban Missile Crisis," 2002, p. 18) Simultaneously, the Americans both feared the Soviets and resented the clear violation…… [Read More]

References

Cuban Missile Crisis. (2002). Cuban Missile Crisis. Politics & World Affairs: Cold War, 18.

In Defense of Civil Liberties (2004, September 20). The New York Times, p. A24.

Kaplan, Morton A. (2002). Intelligence Failures. World & I, 17, 12.

U.S. Has "No Objections" to China's Nuclear Buildup (2001). The New American, 17, 13.
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Graham Allison's Conceptual Models Assessing

Words: 2048 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21302554



Thus, foreign policy decisions are not actually decisions at all, but rather unplanned outcomes that result from "compromise, coalition, competition, and confusion among government officials who see different faces of an issue" (708). Though Allison once again uses the analogy of players to illustrate this model, these players are not all on the same team. Instead, the players are political bureaucrats attempting to win the game by getting the best solution to their problems without loosing their own world interests.

A variety of theories about the decision to go to ar in Iraq suggest that the Bureaucratic Politics Model may be an excellent fit to the foreign policy decision. The most prominent is the theory that the ar in Iraq was essentially a war for oil. According to Alan Greenspan, the former chairman of the Federal Reserve and a conservative, in his 2007 biography, the United States went to war…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allison, Graham T. "Conceptual Models and the Cuban Missile Crisis." The American

Political Science Review. 63.3 (1969): 680-718.

Bendor, Jonathan and Hammond, Thomas M. "Rethinking Allison's Models." American

Political Science Review. 86.2 (1992): 301-322.
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Foreign Relations of the U S

Words: 3375 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80732255



A second lesson was found in Kennedy's management of the crisis. The basic lesson learned was that, in the midst of such a crisis, leaders need time away from the glare of the media to resolve their own thinking and communications, and they need the self-confidence to limit their objectives to only what is needed to resolve the crisis, not "win" it.

It is believed that the Soviet's lesson was that you can't mess with nuclear weapons. In other words, when it gets to the point that you know you might destroy millions of innocent people, that is the depth of fear that leaders must realize, confront, and not back away from. What they must do is back away from the unnecessary and catastrophic events their pride might trigger.

The lessons learned by European leaders were probably not good ones. Kennedy did not consult with them during this crisis. They…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barnett, R.J. "America in Vietnam: The Four Interventions (excerpted from the book: Intervention and Revolution)." 1968. thirdworldtraveler.com. 28 JUly 2009 .

Brenner, P. "The Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962: Turning History on its Head." 2002. George Washington University. 29 July 2009 .

U.S. Dept. Of State. "Kennan and Containment, 1947." n.d. U.S. Department of State. 28 JUly 2009 .

"What ended the cold war?" 8 August 2003. Everything2.com. 28 July 2009 .
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U S Foreign Affairs Since 1898

Words: 1847 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81460756

S. officials and other entities were very well informed), but rather on indecisiveness and incapacity to react with direct, concrete means in these situations.

5. The major issues of American foreign policy during the 1950s were generally circumscribed to the Cold War between the U.S. And the Soviet Union and the relations between these two countries, ranging form mutual containment to escalation (towards the end of the decade).

The first issue emerging from this policy was the Korean War. The Korean War, characterized by the initial invasion of South Korea by North Korean troops and the subsequent implication of American and Chinese troops, was a direct consequence of the post-WWII conditions when each superpower attempted to promote and spread its own military and ideological system.

With the American army first pushed back all the way to Pusan and then following General Macarthur's landing at Inchon behind enemy troops and the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Howard Jones. 2001. Crucible of Power: A History of American Foreign Relations from 1897, Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources.

2. Robert Kennedy. 1999. Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis, New York: Norton

3. Samantha Power, a Problem From Hell: American in the Age of Genocide
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Kennedy's Legacy What John F

Words: 992 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26383576

In this Kennedy appeared to be following up on his anti-Communist speech with anti-Communist actions. but, the level of actual commitment was clearly not there. Kennedy had the entire United States military at his disposal. All he had to do was use them. but, clearly, he did not have the stomach to follow it all the way through. Kennedy wanted to appear strong but did not want to have to be strong - image meant everything.

Operation Mongoose continued the entire Cuban situation. It relied upon covert use of the CIA to make any and all attempts necessary to overthrow the Cuban government. On the heels of the Bay of Pigs failure, Kennedy attempted another poorly conceived attempt to rid himself of Castro. The operation essentially failed before it could possibly begin. Time after time, plans were brought out to be replaced by others. And those plans were impossibly strange…… [Read More]

References

LeFeber, Walter. America, Russia and the Cold War: 1945-2002. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002.

Merrill, Dennis & Paterson, Thomas G Major Problems in American Foreign Relations: Since 1914. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005.
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1962 Memo Recommending Presidential Action

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62793215

(2) Blockade (Kennedy, .F., 1969), which would prevent the Soviet Union from carrying out its mission of establishing a Soviet missile base on the island of Cuba, and will send the message to the Soviet Union that they are attempting to cross the line where the United States can maintain a hands-off policy (Powell, Samantha, 2003, pp. 6-7). and, should the first two fail, (3) an air strike and invasion of the island wherein the United States will seize control of the island and work towards making it either a U.S. territory, or we will work to install a democratic government (Kennedy, .F., 1969).

These are the recommendations of this council.

eferences

Donald, .(dir) (2000), Thirteen Days (motion picture), Beacon Communications, USA.

Kennedy, .F., (1969) Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, New York.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=78888201

Powaski, .E. (1998). The Cold War…… [Read More]

References

Donald, R.(dir) (2000), Thirteen Days (motion picture), Beacon Communications, USA.

Kennedy, R.F., (1969) Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, New York.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=78888201

Powaski, R.E. (1998). The Cold War the United States and the Soviet Union, 1917-1991. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved September 24, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=78888344
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Ceases to Amaze Me That

Words: 615 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33087253



Because of the high stakes that surrounded each character's decisions, Thirteen Days remained exciting even during technical discussions of policy. Not only was it entertaining, then, but it also greatly increased my understanding of the events of the Cuban Missile Crisis and the methods by which decisions are reached, in Washington and probably in most -- if not all -- current and historical halls of government during times of crisis. The negotiation and circumvention of the many personalities involved in powerful, history-making decisions is a delicate and complex dance that only true masters can maneuver in, and in Thirteen Days both Kennedy brothers and, to a degree, Robert S. McNamara were all portrayed as such political masters.

On a somewhat less profound though perhaps more practical level, this film also taught me about the way decision are negotiated between the civilian and military government officials. Though the President is ostensibly…… [Read More]

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Contemporary History

Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94971379

Cold War

It is important to note from the onset that the Cold War was not essentially a war that involved conventional military weaponry. It was a war that largely involved the utilization of surrogates, propaganda, and economics -- it was a war of words. In that regard therefore, the Cold War was in basic terms the uneasy relationship that primarily developed between the U.S.S.. And the U.S.A. after the end of the Second World War (Goff, et al. 2008). The Cold War was caused by a variety of factors. In this text, I will analyze two of the many events that may have, in one way or another, deepened the Cold War.

To begin with, the People's epublic of China-Soviet Union alliance "signed during the Moscow meetings between Stalin and Chinese leader Mao Zedong in February 1950, was one of the cornerstones of the early Cold War and one…… [Read More]

References

Goff, R., Moss, W., Terry, J., Upshur, J., & Schroeder, M. (2008). The Twentieth Century and Beyond - A Global History (7th Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Hanhimaki, J.S. & Westad, O.A. (Eds.). (2004). The Cold War: A History in Documents and Eyewitness Accounts. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Philips, S. (2001). The Cold War: Conflict in Europe and Asia. Burlington, MA: Heinemann.
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Kennedy and Brinkley President John Fitzgerald Kennedy

Words: 1469 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2897500

Kennedy and Brinkley

President John Fitzgerald Kennedy is an important figure in American history and was instrumental in shaping the American identity in the second half of the twentieth century. His personality and optimism, as well as his heroism in the Second orld ar helped the country to formulate a hope that the 1960s could be a time of renewal and rebirth in the United States of America. In recent years, the more scandalous aspects of his life have overtaken his historical significance, something that should be remedied and his importance restored. Most importantly, his actions during the Cold ar between the United States and the U.S.S.R. are credited with saving the world from descending into nuclear war. In Alan Brinkley's 2012 book John F. Kenney, the author attempts to explain the man in terms of his place in history and how his personal abilities and charisma were able to…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Brinkley, A. (2012). John F. Kennedy: The American Presidents Series: The 35th President,

1961-1963. Times: New York, NY.

Kennedy, J. (1961). Inaugural address. American Rhetoric.com

Kennedy, J. (1963). American University commencement address. American Rhetoric.com
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Western Civilization the 1947 Truman

Words: 335 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35727701

The 1956 Suez Canal Crisis caused an indirect confrontation when America's allies France, Britain, and Israel made an unsuccessful military attempt to take over the Suez Canal from the Soviet Union's ally Egypt. After the U.S.S.. threatened to become militarily involved in the crisis, the U.S. forced its allies to concede defeat.

The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis occurred after the U.S. discovered that the U.S.S.. had secretly supplied Cuba with nuclear-armed missiles. This discovery was especially alarming because now the U.S.S.. could militarily subdue its rival by easily launching missiles against it. After a naval blockade around Cuba and intense negotiations the U.S.S.. was finally made to remove the missiles in exchange for the U.S. pledge not to overthrow Cuba's Communist regime.

eferences

The Cold War." (N.D) in the Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Standard 2005 CD.… [Read More]

References

The Cold War." (N.D) in the Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Standard 2005 CD.
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Charismatic Leadership of John F

Words: 1705 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99014142

Had the failure of the Cuban invasion not occurred, Kennedy would not have been able to appear so ascendant, and the positive reaction to his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis might not have been as great in magnitude. Truly however, it was his social programs such as the Peace Corps and his focus on establishing peace with the Soviet Union that truly showed him to be the charismatic leader for which he is remembered today.

eferences

Freedom Doctrine Speech." (1961). WGBH Lectures. Accessed 21 January 2009. http://forum.wgbh.org/wgbh/forum.php?lecture_id=1164

John F. Kennedy." (2009) About the White House: Presidents. Accessed 21 January 2009. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnfkennedy/

John Fitzgerald Kennedy." Spartacus Educational. Accessed 21 January 2009. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAkennedyJ.htm

O'Brien, M. (2005) John F. Kennedy. New York: Macmillan. etrieved via Google Books 2 January 2009. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=fxzd__gA_I4C&dq=john+f+kennedy&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=b090N20I3D&sig=vZHZ3U4jmj3sFVEx7CFDb7pE4s&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPA494,M1

Parekh, N. (2005). "John F. Kennedy Biography." Accessed 21 January 2009. http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/1-23-2005-64647.asp

Charismatic JFK… [Read More]

References

Freedom Doctrine Speech." (1961). WGBH Lectures. Accessed 21 January 2009. http://forum.wgbh.org/wgbh/forum.php?lecture_id=1164

John F. Kennedy." (2009) About the White House: Presidents. Accessed 21 January 2009. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnfkennedy/

John Fitzgerald Kennedy." Spartacus Educational. Accessed 21 January 2009. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAkennedyJ.htm

O'Brien, M. (2005) John F. Kennedy. New York: Macmillan. Retrieved via Google Books 2 January 2009. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=fxzd__gA_I4C&dq=john+f+kennedy&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=b090N20I3D&sig=vZHZ3U4jmj3sFRVEx7CFDb7pE4s&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPA494,M1
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History International Relations

Words: 2464 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50664711

United tates and Fidel Castro's Cuba, now more than forty years old, is still a source of great political and moral contention. The collapse of the oviet Union and, with it, the end of the Cold War, signaled a change in the implications of the type of socialism governing Cuba. The alleged threats that had hovered so close to the continental U.. throughout these paranoid and dangerous days of ideological impasse were now neutralized by the dismantling of the infrastructure that had brandished them. Cuba, once a unique and remote ally to the U...R., served as an outpost for anti-American hostilities and a potential vessel through which to deliver the devastating blows that may have turned the Cold War hot, now is an isolated bastion for ideals abandoned by most of the world. In the Western Hemisphere, they are alone, paying for what most American citizens will tell you is…… [Read More]

Sources can be found and printed at the following sites:

Source 1. http://www.state.gov/www/regions/wha/cuba/policy.html

Source 2. http://travel.state.gov/cuba.html

Source 3.  http://qbanrum.tripod.com/cuba-1.html 

Source 4.  http://isla.igc.org/Features/Cuba/cuba2.html
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International Affairs Security Studies

Words: 783 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60425518

diplomacy is more likely to work in the de-escalation than the escalation phase. If we have a brief look at the definitions of the two phases, escalation is a phase where "adversaries begin to make greater threats and impose harsher negative sanctions." It is obvious that this phase has left the field of constructive diplomacy. We are no longer talking about negotiations, but about "threats" and "negative sanctions." The de-escalation phase "involves changes within each of the adversaries as well as new forms of interaction between them." The stalemate that has occurred till then makes them more willing to negotiate, so this would be an adequate phase to solve the conflict in a diplomatical manner.

The diplomacy in the de-escalation period should be characterized by small steps towards reducing the tension and towards a gradual normality of the relations between the two parties. Mistrust between the adversaries is another condition…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Maiesse, Michelle. Limiting Escalation/De-Escalation. On the Internet at http://www.intractableconflict.org/m/limiting_escalation.jsp
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Alpha 66 and Omega 7 Are Alpha

Words: 2156 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5637404

Alpha 66 and Omega 7

Are Alpha 66 and Omega 7 Domestic or International Organizations?

After Fidel Castro's evolutionary movement overthrew the Batista regime in Cuba and declared his country a Socialist nation allied with the Soviet Union -- the principle enemy of the United States at the time -- many Cubans opposed to Castro flocked to the United States. Many of these refugees and exiles were wealthy businessmen who were committed to overthrowing the Castro regime. The anti-Castro opposition by Cuban exiles took different forms, some of them advocating dialogue or diplomatic opposition, while others taking a hardliner position, engaging in militant activities (Garcia, 1998). The Cuban exile organizations known as Alpha 66 and Omega 7 were among the latter, resorting to violent activities inside and outside the United States, attacking persons and installations belonging to the Castro government and its allies as well as those in the United…… [Read More]

References

Bohning, D. (2005) The Castro Obsession: U.S. Covert Operations Against Cuba, 1959-1965. Washington, D.C.: Potomac Books, Inc.

Didion, J. (1987) Miami. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Garcia, M. (1998). Hardliners v. 'Dialogueros': Cuban Exile Political Groups and United States -- Cuba Policy. Journal of American Ethnic History, 17(4), 3. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Herman, E.S. (1982) The Real Terror Network: Terrorism in Fact and Propaganda. Boston: South End Press, 1982.
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Presidents in the History of

Words: 2083 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76845855

He was one of the youngest presidents in history (the same age as JFK when he took office, forty-three. He also was an avid outdoorsman and appreciative of the American West (he had a ranch in North Dakota), and his far-seeing vision created one of America's most enduring traditions, the U.S. Forest Service and protected wild lands. oosevelt's accomplishments may not have been as well-known as some of the other presidents, but they were certainly far reaching. First, he was the first president to establish an area in the White House specifically for journalists (oller, 1988, p. 200). He was an extremely popular president, and he was the first to travel outside the country, to the Panama Canal, during a presidency. He also helped create the Panama Canal Project, one of the most important building projects of the time, and still a vital link between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.…… [Read More]

References

Boller, P.F. (1996). Presidential anecdotes (Revised ed.). New York: Oxford U.S..

Bursey, L.G. (1988). 4 Abraham Lincoln. In Popular images of American presidents, Spragens, W.C. (Ed.) (pp. 67-94). New York: Greenwood Press.

Cronin, T.E., & Genovese, M.A. (1998). The paradoxes of the American presidency. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hart, John. (1995). The presidential branch: From Washington to Clinton (2nd ed.). Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Publishers.
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Air Force Marketing Slogans the

Words: 1501 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49137416

Garber. (2003). "Is Military Advertising Effective?" The and

Corporation eports. Cited in:

http://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/M1591/M1591.pref.pdf

Hintze, W. And J. Lehnus. (1999). "ecognition of Military Advertising Slogans Among

American Youth." Independent Job Analysis, LLC. Cited in:

http://www.ijoa.org/imta96/paper19.html

Hook, S. And J. Spanier. (2009). American Foreign Policy Since World War II.

CQ Press.

Layne, C. (2006). The Peace of Illusions: American Grand Strategy from 1940

To the Present in Security Affairs. Cornell University Press.

"Marketing and Advertising Slogans Database." (n.d.). Cited in:

http://www.textart.ru/database/slogan/list-advertising-slogans.html

"Mixed eviews for New Air Force Slogan." (February 29, 2008). Stars and Stripes.

Cited in:

http://www.military.com/features/0,15240,163068,00.html

O'Connor, S. (March 2, 2008). "Air Force olls Out New Advertising Campaign."

The Air Force Times. Cited in:

http://www.airforcetimes.com/news/2008/02/airforce_aboveall_080219w/

"U.S. Air Force Mottos." (2009). Military-Quotes.com. Cited in:

http://www.military-quotes.com/mottos/U.S.-Air-Force.htm

USAF. (2009). "Posture Statement" United States Air Force. Cited in:

http://www.posturestatement.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-090522-062.pdf

USAF. (2009). "Mission." United States Air Force. Cited in:

http://www.dosomethingamazing.com/learn-about/our-mission/

"Why is Military Advertising So Effective?"…… [Read More]

REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED

Barnes, J. And P. Spiegel. (June 10, 2008). "A different type of Air Force leader." the

Los Angeles Times. Cited in:

 http://articles.latimes.com/2008/jun/10/nation/na-schwartz10 

Dertouzos, J. And S. Garber. (2003). "Is Military Advertising Effective?" The Rand
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Robert Kennedy Chair of the

Words: 1603 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90902123

The blockade will require the efforts of these military forces to identify and intercept and ship (or submarine) bound for Cuba and prevent it from reaching ports in Cuba. In addition, it would be advisable that once the blockade is instituted that high-level US. officials begin quiet negotiations with the Soviets in order to diffuse the crisis before it escalates. The removal of Soviet missile sites from Cuba could be countered with an offering to remove our own missile sites from an similarly strategically unimportant position in Europe (Alterman, 1997). Such a gesture would do little to affect the balance of power between the U.S. And the Soviets, would give the Soviets the false sense that they had "won" this conflict, and would show the world that the U.S. will respond forcefully when threatened by a foreign power.

orks Cited

Alterman, E. (1997, November 10). Profile in courage? The Nation,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alterman, E. (1997, November 10). Profile in courage? The Nation, 265(15), pp. 6-7.

Cuban missile crisis. (2000). The Columbia Encyclopedia. The Columbia University Press. 6th ed. p. 9980.

Manning, R. (1997, October 20). How close to the brink. Newsweek, 130(16), p. 18.

McComas, D. (1987, November 20). When the other guy blinked. Scholastic Update, 120(6), pp. 27-29.
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Hydrogen Bomb the 1940s Introduced

Words: 696 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97595256

Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum). After meeting with his advisors over the course of several days, President John F. Kennedy declared a blockade would be put in place around Cuba with the intention of preventing the Soviet Union from supplying Cuba with any more military supplies ("Cuban Missile Crisis," John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum). Shortly thereafter, on October 22, President Kennedy announced, via a television broadcast, the presence of the missiles in Cuba, his decision to "enact a naval blockade around Cuba and made it clear the U.S. was prepared to use military force if necessary to neutralize this perceived threat to national security" ("Cuban Missile Crisis," History Channel). hile Kennedy and the United States were unsure of the reaction this televised announcement would have on Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, both political leaders recognized the threat nuclear war posed and agreed to negotiate a deal ("Cuban Missile Crisis,"…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cavendish, Richard. "The First Hydrogen Bomb." History Today. Vol. 56, Issue 5 (2006). Web.

23 March 2013.

"Cuban Missile Crisis." History Channel. Web. 23 March 2013.

"Cuban Missile Crisis." John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Web. 23 March
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Kennedy and Flexible Response'so

Words: 2273 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11752300

The administration of J.F.K. determined that the mission and size of the U.S. advisory project must increase if the U.S.-backed government in Saigon was to survive and win the war. While some of Kennedy's cabinet advisors proposed a negotiated settlement for Vietnam similar to one that recognized Laos as a neutral nation, this was not to be. The administration had just suffered diplomatic setbacks and embarrassments in Berlin and Cuba. So that it did not repeat this, the covert military option was used, but unsuccessfully. The war continued to escalate, requiring more U.S. advisors and military and foreign aid. Unfortunately for the U.S., the covert operations to assist the South against North Vietnam escalated in the harassment and landing of covert forces until the U.S. Navy became embroiled in the Gulf of Tonkin incident that sealed the U.S. path to open military involvement in the conflict (ibid.).

Diplomatic options in…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, D.L. (1999). The military and diplomatic course of the vietnam war. Retrieved from  http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/vietnam/anderson.htm .

Kennedy considered supporting coup in south vietnam, august 1963. (2009, December 11). Retrieved

from http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB302/index.htm.

Lemnitzer, L. (1962). Operation northwoods. Retrieved from www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/news/20010430/doc1.pdf.
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Nuclear Weaponry Nuclear Weapons Have Had a

Words: 1947 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53947484

Nuclear eaponry

Nuclear weapons have had a profound impact upon the world at large, as well as upon the United States of America, since they were researched and created within the middle of the 20th Century. The political ramifications of the possession of, monitoring of, and even the occasional use of such weapons have drastically influenced the way nation states conduct themselves towards one another. There was a prolonged time period in which most of the world was actually anticipating, and dreading, the day a full scale nuclear war would take place due to the deployment of such weaponry. International conflicts such as orld ar II -- in which nuclear weapons were first used -- the Cuban Missile Crisis, as well as the prolonged Cold ar that largely pitted the Soviet Union against the United States helped to fuel this conception and to place nuclear weapons at the forefront of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bernstein, Barton. "The Uneasy Alliance: Roosevelt, Churchill, and the Atomic Bomb, 1940 -- 1945." The Western Political Quarterly 29 (2): 202 -- 230. 1976. Print.

Epperson, Ralf. The Unseen Hand. Tucson: Publius Press. 1985. Print.

Faria, Miguel. Cuba in Revolution: Escape from a Lost Paradise. Macon: Hacienda. 2002. Print.

Smyth, Henry. Atomic Energy for Military Purposes: the Official Report on the Development of the Atomic Bomb under the Auspices of the United States Government, 1940-1945.Princeton: Princeton University Press.
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March on Washington on August 28-29

Words: 1747 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13991178

Washington on August 28-29

On this day, more than 200,000 Americans congregated in Washington, D.C., for a civil demonstration referred to as the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. Planned and prepared by some civil rights and religious groups, the incident was intended to spell out the political and social challenges African-Americans constantly experienced across the nation. The march, which turned out to be a fundamental moment in the mounting struggle for civil rights in the United States, concluded in Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech, a strong-willed appeal for racial, even handedness, fairness and equality (History, 2016). This topic might be of interest today with the recent cases of killings and discrimination against African-Americans in the United States to the creation of the Black Lives Matter movement.

Beatles on Ed Sullivan Show

On this day, the Beatles were introduced to the American public. It is…… [Read More]

References

Carlson, P. (2010). K Blows Top: A Cold War Comic Interlude Starring Nikita Khrushchev, America's Most Unlikely Tourist. Read How You Want. pp. 408 -- 412.

Churchill, R. S., & Churchill, W. S. (1967). The six-day war (Vol. 5). Houghton Mifflin.

Cyr, A. I. (2012). Cyr: Cuban missile crisis offers lessons relevant today. Newsday. Retrieved from: http://www.newsday.com/opinion/oped/cuban-missile-crisis-offers-lessons-relevant-today-arthur-i-cyr-1.4133202

Haas, R. (2011). 9/11 Perspective. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved from: http://www.cfr.org/911-impact/911-perspective/p25735
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Kennedy's Presidency

Words: 1424 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12422979

JFK's Leadership

As that of any successful leader, Kennedy's leadership style is a complex combination of different qualities and characteristics. This paper will analyze several of them, as well as the leadership profile overall, with the purpose of understanding what made Kennedy an effective leader and whether this was indeed the case.

Hald-Mortensen (2007) looks at three different areas where Kennedy excelled and that contributed to making Kennedy an effective leader: vision, decision making and delegation. He points out, first of all, that Kennedy had vision, something essential for an effective leader. In practical terms, vision meant that he knew where the U.S. should end up in the future and molded his policy accordingly.

One such example of a clear vision for Kennedy was the space program and the Moon Project. The space program involved not only the vision that competition for the outer space would be the next area…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Barnes, John A. (2005). John F. Kennedy on Leadership: The Lessons and Legacy of a President. AMACOM

2. Hald-Mortensen, Christian, (2007). John F. Kennedy -- Leadership Qualities That Moved A Nation. Graduate Faculty of Graduate School of Public and International Affairs.

3. Sabato, Larry, (2013). Lead like John F. Kennedy. The Washington Post.
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Nuclear Weapons an Analysis of the Intelligence

Words: 911 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44472699

Nuclear eapons

An analysis of the Intelligence Community's efforts against the Soviet Nuclear arsenal during the Cold ar

The Cold ar was one of the defining periods in U.S. history. Going to the moon was more about the culture and events that were occurring during the 1960s than anything else. hen Kennedy announced in 1961 that the U.S. would put a man on the moon, it was more about the Cold ar and showing up the Soviets than merely for scientific discovery. "So we decided to engage in this major scientific and technological endeavor and prove to the world that we were second to none," Roger Launius, the curator of the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum stated (Lamb, 2012). However, the race to achieve a technological domination was not limited to space alone. Each country had developed nuclear technologies that were promoted because of the competition between the countries.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Atom Central. (N.d.). The Cold War. Retrieved from Atom Central:  http://www.atomcentral.com/the-cold-war.aspx 

Lamb, R. (2012, October 6). Why Did We Go To the Moon? Retrieved from Discovery News:  http://news.discovery.com/space/private-spaceflight/why-did-we-go-to-the-moon.htm 

Tarantola, A. (2013, November 8). 10 Cold War Weapons That Terrified U.S. Military Intelligence. Retrieved from Gizmodo:  http://gizmodo.com/10-cold-war-weapons-that-terrified-u-s-military-intell-1459669357 

Valois, K. (1970). The Cuban Missile Crisis: A World in Peril. Auburndale: History Compass.
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National Character and Foreign Policy

Words: 1646 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6075632

September 11, 2001 changed everything. We hear sentiments such as this one often; what do they really mean? Other than the obvious -- stricter security at airports, increased demand for Middle East experts -- what really changed? Are Americans fundamentally different people than we were on September 10? Perhaps as a nation our priorities changed, but has our personality been altered? The 9/11 Commission Report emphasizes national unity: "remember how we all felt on September 11...not only the unspeakable horror but how we came together as a nation -- one nation. Unity of purpose and unity of effort are how we will defeat this enemy." (National Commission 2004, executive summary 34)

The raw freshness of the attacks on September 11 inspires amnesia regarding other national security crises: the attacks on Pearl Harbor, the Vietnam War, the Cuban Missile Crisis. America has never been without military involvement in the world, at…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Spanier, John and Steven Hook. American Foreign Policy Since World War II. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press, 2004.

National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the U.S., The 9/11 Commission Report. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2004,
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Politics Some Say That World

Words: 3064 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33301639



yan Dawson (2011) helps illustrate the way ideology shapes foreign policy by digging into Project for a New American Century files and showing how the PNAC reports are basically a lobbying tool for Israel. Dawson refers viewers of his documentary to PNAC many times in his attempt to show how the papers lay out the blueprint for American foreign policy post-9/11: "The policy of 'containment' of Saddam Hussein has been steadily eroding over the past several months. As recent events have demonstrated, we can no longer depend on our partners in the Gulf War coalition to continue to uphold the sanctions or to punish Saddam when he blocks or evades UN inspections." Such reports coupled with the yellow cake uranium story and the WMDs hoax, and of course the "harboring terrorists" myth, and the American public was read to back a war against Iraq -- even though Iraq was no…… [Read More]

Reference List

1962-Year in Review. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.upi.com/Audio/Year_in_Review/Events-of-1962/Cuban-Missile-Crisis/12295509437657-6/

BusinessMate. (2009). Max Weber's Theory of Bureaucracy. BusinessMate.org.

Retrieved from  http://www.businessmate.org/Article.php?ArtikelId=30 

Chayevsky, P. [writer]. (1976). Network. Los Angeles: MGM.
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John F Kennedy Rhetorical Context The Audience

Words: 920 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11806998

John . Kennedy

Rhetorical context: The audience is a conservative political group that advocates smaller federal government and the right for local communities and states to control as much of their needed government as possible. The occasion is their annual meeting, and the purpose is to demonstrate that although Kennedy was a liberal in many ways, he was still a great, if flawed, man.

John . Kennedy: the very name makes political conservatives cringe. However, his short role in the political history of the Presidency was so pivotal that is necessary to consider what kind of President he really was beyond the hype and the active public relations campaign that kept his many flaws out of the news media. Because the media remained silent about his personal flaws, the country was able to nearly canonize him after his untimely death.

He was a Liberal. Of that there is no doubt.…… [Read More]

For all his flaws, John F. Kennedy was a great president who understood the Communist threat at the most important level. Because he was willing to stand up to the Russians during the Cuban Missile Crisis, the United States triumphed over our greatest enemy without a single battle. By doing this, he made the end of the Cold War inevitable.

Source:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/state/monarchs_leaders/kennedy_celebrity_01.shtml
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Strategic Value of Nuclear Weapons

Words: 2365 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16285953



Nuclear weapons became a tool of American policy that goes far beyond protection of national interests, for American national interests depend on the propagation of American ideals. The United States is, in the words of Harold Lasswell, a "garrison state;" a crusading nation that seeks to combat all enemies real and imagined and to remake the world in its own image. (Flint 86-87) Under the new doctrine, nuclear strategy becomes a means of enforcing an ideology - all dissent, or supposed dissent, is rooted out through the threat of ultimate and complete destruction. Terrorism is made the defining characteristic of immorality. States that support terrorism become the ultimate evildoers. The Bush Administration redefined international relations in terms of an axis of good led by the United States and its allies, and an axis of evil consisting preeminently of Iraq, Iran, and North Korea and their terrorist associates. Alone among these…… [Read More]

References

Botti, Timothy J. Ace in the Hole: Why the United States Did Not Use Nuclear Weapons in the Cold War, 1945 to 1965. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.

Flint, Colin, ed. The Geography of War and Peace: From Death Camps to Diplomats. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Hilsman, Roger. From Nuclear Military Strategy to a World without War: A History and a Proposal. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1999.

Hirschbein, Ron. Massing the Tropes: The Metaphorical Construction of American Nuclear Strategy. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2005.
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Inadvertent War -- Historical Issues

Words: 1284 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35749318

However, human error and responses based on mistakes of interpretation greatly escalated the respective bombing campaigns of Britain and Germany. Specifically, both nations had purposely avoided bombing one another's civilian populations when, on August 24, 1940, several German bombers accidentally bombed residential areas of London (Commager & Miller, 2002). In response, Britain bombed factories and airfields near Berlin; the relative inaccuracy of bombing operations of the era lead Hitler to conclude that those raids were intended as attacks on civilians. He immediately began ordering indiscriminate bombing attacks on London, eventually exposing German civilians to even more intense bombing campaigns by the Allies later in the war (Commager & Miller, 2002). To a certain extent, the exchange of attacks on civilian population centers on both sides was the result of inadvertent misunderstanding of intentions that escalated the horrors of Word War II even further.

The Prospect of Inadvertent Nuclear War:

On…… [Read More]

References

Cirincione, J. (2007). Bomb Scare: The History and Future of Nuclear Weapons. New York: Columbia University Press.

Commager, H., Miller, D. (2002). The Story of World War II: Revised, Expanded & Updated from the Original Text by Henry Steele Commager. New York: Bantam

Books.

Hayes, C., and Faissler, M. (1999). Modern Times: The French Revolution to the Present.
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Politics the Central Theme of

Words: 3679 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65228615

They are only trying to justify their actions; they are handing excuses, telling the events as they happened. And in the end maybe these characters do find an excuse, the one that they are both human, bound to fail and to be influenced, sharing the same planet and dealing with the same kind of people. The two personages enjoyed having power and realized in the end that having power doesn't necessary make them omniscient.

oth Robert McNamara and Yuri Orlov had the lives of numerous people in their hands. Maybe these characters felt the need to retell all their stories, in order to let all the demons trapped inside their conscious out.

The characters presented in the two movies were able to depict the laws and needs of man and rose above law; they become a sort of demigod. In Yuri's case this was shown during his tramping across west…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. The Fog of War. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified on Mar 8, 2007, retrieved Mar 16, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_fog_of_war

2. Lord of War. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified on Mar 8, 2007, retrieved Mar 16, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_of_war

3. Dwight D. Eisenhower. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified on Mar 8, 2007, retrieved Mar 16, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eisenhower

4. Military-industrial complex. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified on Mar 8, 2007, retrieved Mar 16, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/military_industrial_complex
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Lessons Learned on Yom Kippur

Words: 2931 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59750372

Flight operations by Egyptian pilots using these aircraft have begun; approximately 16 Hawker Hunter jet fighters also arrived in Egypt from Iraq with Iraqi pilots. About 10 Lightning jet fighters were expected from Saudi Arabia;

(3) Movement of TU-16 bombers from Aswan to the Cairo area in the latter part of March which are equipped to carry air-to-surface missiles;

(4) A high state of alert imposed on the Egyptian air force since April 20 had been noted with some air force reservists being recalled on the third of May;

(5) Relocation and reactivation of various Egyptian air squadrons with shuffling to accommodate aircraft from Libya and Iraq;

(6) The evidence suggested that additional commando units may have moved closer to the Suez Canal since the middle of March; and (7) A report that the Egyptian staff had been ordered to prepare a detailed plan for an attack across the Canal…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Burr, William (2003) The October War and U.S. Policy. National Security Archives. 7 Oct 2003. Online available at: www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/

Indications of Arab Intentions to Initiate Hostilities (2001) National Security Council Archives. Declassified. Online available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/octwar-01.pdf

Intelligence Memorandum for Secretary Kissinger (1973) National Security Council. From William Quandt and Donald Stukel. WSAG Meeting, Middle East, Saturday October 6, 1973, 3:00 P.M. Online available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/octwar-15.pdf

Memorandum of Conversation: Simcha Dinitz, Ambassador of Israel; Mordechai Shalev, Minister; Henry A. Kissinger, Assistant to the President; and Peter W. Rodman, NSC Staff. The White House. National Security Council Archives. Online available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/octwar-05.pdf