Peloponnesian War Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Understanding Greek's Wars

Words: 1067 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26392466

Thucydides Peloponnesian War

The Peloponnesian War history is based on the historical account of Peloponnesian War between 431 and 404 C. The war was led by Athens (the Delian League), and the other led by Sparta within the Peloponnesian League. Thucydides (an Athenian historian) serving as a general in the war developed the focus of the battle.

Together with a lack of trust in Thucydides' information, the narration is not a firsthand experience as Homer's did. However, he uses poet's epics in inferring facts about Trojan War. For example, while Thucydides valued the amount of Greek ships to be over 1,000 towards Troy as poetic exaggeration, he engages Homer's ships catalog when approximating the presence of Greek soldiers. In addition, Thucydides claims that Homer refuses reference for United Greek states for pre-Hellenic nations through disjointed while organizing the launch of effective campaigns. Thucydides adds that Troy was to be conquered…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Thucydides, Robert B. Strassler, and Richard Crawley. The Landmark Thucydides: A Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian War. New York: Free Press, 1998.

Thucydides, Robert B. Strassler and Richard Crawley. The Landmark Thucydides: A Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian War. (New York: Free Press, 1998), 502.

Thucydides, Robert B. Strassler, and Richard Crawley. The Landmark Thucydides: A Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian War. (New York: Free Press, 1998), 231.

Thucydides, Robert B. Strassler, and Richard Crawley. The Landmark Thucydides: A Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian War. (New York: Free Press, 1998), 132.
View Full Essay

Strategy -- Rulers States and War it

Words: 1765 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14256491

trategy -- Rulers, tates and War

It is very difficult to look at the history of humanity and define a number of common, yet intangible philosophies of action that seem to be part of the overall human condition. One of these intangibles is the human capacity to produce both incredible beauty and horrific evil -- both of which occur during war. In fact, we may ask -- what is war? Every historical period from Ancient Mesopotamia to the present has added a new meaning to the word, but the very essence remains the same. War is a conflict between groups, a way to solve a political or social disagreement through force. Because war has been part of the human condition for millennia, however, we can look at it from both a theoretical and practical aspect of a way to use violence as a solution to problems. One of the most…… [Read More]

Sources:

Clausewitz, C. On War. Edited by M. Howard. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1984.

Keegan, J. A History of Warfare. New York: Vintage, 1994.

Murray, W., et al., eds. The Making of Strategy: Rulers, States and War. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press, 1996.
View Full Essay

Just War Theory Sweeping Changes in the

Words: 1702 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92690826

Just ar Theory

Sweeping changes in the way wars are fought have brought current scholars' attention to the ethical concept of the Just ar. The concept of the Just ar is nearly as old as war itself; it is perhaps best codified in Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian ar. There have historically been two main approaches to deciding what is, in fact, fair in war: deontological and consequentialist. In short, these opposing poles represent: on the one hand, duty, what war "ought" to be, and the notion that war requires a moral motivation and morally justifiable means; on the other hand, realpolitik, pragmatic considerations, and an account based on justifiable ends rather than means. The deontological approach takes many cues from Kant's ethics, while the consequentialist or Realist school finds its roots in John Stuart Mill, among others.

Recent work in political philosophy and ethics has attempted to place international…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Walzer, Michael (1991). Just and Unjust Wars: 2nd Edition. New York: Basic Books.

Kaufman, Whitley. "Rethinking the ban on assassination: Just war principles in the age of terror." Rethinking the Just War Tradition. Ed. Michael W. Brough et al. Albany: SUNY Press, 2007.

Tirimanna, Vimal. "Mass Media and its Effects on Just War Criteria in the Gulf War." New Blackfriars. 73.859 (1992): 235-246.

Oliver, Kelly. "Bodies against the law: Abu Ghraib and the War on Terror." Continental Philosophy Review. 42.1 (2009): 63-80.
View Full Essay

Theatres of War Mendelsohn

Words: 672 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5866373

Theatres of War," Daniel Mendelsohn points out how political Conservatives Donald Kagan and Victor David Hanson find in Greek history, especially Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War, an argument on behalf of "plain hawkishness, a distaste for compromise and negotiation when armed conflict is possible." These present-day views on Greece demand a certain degree of rewriting of Thucydides. Mendelsohn explains how Kagan recognizes the opportunities presented by the new world order for revisionism or rereading the Peloponnesian War to shed light on current events. At the beginning of his book, Peloponnesian War (2003), Kagan informs readers that he wants Thucydides' work to "meet the needs of readers in the 21st century" and will refrain from drawing parallels between the ancient event and any modern counterpart because "an uninterrupted account will better allow readers to draw their own conclusions."

Unfortunately, notes Mendelsohn, Kagan's report may be "uninterrupted," but it does not…… [Read More]

References Cited

Kagan, D. The Peloponnesian War. New York: Penguin, 2003.

Mendelsohn, D. "Theatres of War." New Yorker, January 12, 2004.

Thucydides. History of the Peloponnesian Wars. New York: Penguin, 1954.

Zinn, H. Politics of History. Urbana, IL: First Illinois Paperback, 1990.
View Full Essay

Kenneth Waltz's Man the State and War

Words: 1560 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41082420

Kenneth Waltz's Man, the State, and War - a Theoretical Analysis

The purpose of Man, the State and War is to debunk theories that do not locate the causes of war in the system. Unlike Morgenthau who does not believe international relations can change (because human nature cannot change), Waltz believes that by changing the nature of the system, changes can be made in international relations.

To make his case, Waltz presents three hypotheses or "images." The first image is that human nature is the cause of war. If human nature is evil, corrupt, power-hungry then the same must be true of state behavior since states are made up of and governed by people. ad people do bad things; because human nature cannot be changed, war cannot be eliminated and the best we can do is manage conflict and war through a proper understanding of the balance of power.

The…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Waltz, K. Man, the State, and War - A Theoretical Analysis. New York: Columbia University Press, 1959.
View Full Essay

Athens and Sparta -- Was War Inevitable

Words: 2460 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9753311

Athens and Sparta -- as ar Inevitable?

Between 500 and 350 BC the area now known as Greece was but a collection of separate and unallied city-states. Today, we often view cultures and political conflict in terms of nations, and take the view that since city-states were geographically close, culture was the same. This, however, was untrue, particularly in the case of the two most powerful and well-known city states of Athens and Sparta.

That is not to say that these two entities were completely divergent. Both had some cultural similarities in context with their history, and they cooperated -- if distantly, in the years leading up to the Battle of Thermopylae and subsequent defeat of the Persian invaders at Salamis and Plataea, ending Persian aggression for a time.

However, understanding Ancient Cultures is often difficult. e have limited resources from which to build a portrait of the culture, and…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Cartledge, P. Sparta and Lakonia: A Regional History. New York: Oxford/Routledge, 2002. Print.

Hall, J. Hellenicity: Betweeh Ethnicity and Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Print.

Kagan, D. The Peloponnesian War. New York: Penguin, 2000. Print.

Kovacs, C. Ancient Greece. Edinburgh, Scottland: Floris Books, 2004. Print.
View Full Essay

Machiavelli and Thucydides Share Remarkable Similarities in

Words: 1335 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25354786

Machiavelli and Thucydides share remarkable similarities in their thoughts about human nature and the role of the state, but differ somewhat in their ideas about leadership. Machiavelli and Thucydides share a similar view of human nature as basically selfish, and both note that rule is most often disassociated from considerations of morality. Machiavelli argues that a ruler must ultimately be concerned with his own self-interest, while Thucydides noted that self-interest often came at the expense of the state.

Machiavelli was born in 1469 in Florence, Italy to an influential but poor old Florentine family. He became involved in politics as early as 1498, when he was appointed as head of the Second Chancery, a government agency overseeing diplomacy and war. He traveled to France, Germany, and Rome, and played an important role in conquering Pisa in 1509, in addition to acting as an important advisor.

After 14 years of service,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hooker, Richard. Thucydides. Washington State University. Adapted from: Thucydides, translated by Benjamin Jowett, first edition (London: Oxford University Press, 1881), pages 125-135, 166-177. 26 November 2002. http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/GREECE/THUCY.htm

Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Prince. Translation from the Italian by Hill Thompson. Palm Springs, Calif.: ETC Publications, 1988.

The Literature Network. Niccolo Machiavelli. 27 November 2002.  http://www.online-literature.com/machiavelli/ 

Thucydides. The History of the Peloponnesian War. Translated by Richard Crawley. 27 November 2002. Reproduced online at  http://classics.mit.edu/Thucydides/pelopwar.html
View Full Essay

Thucydides' Ambiguous History Did 'Might

Words: 743 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84855010

It made no "long speech no one would believe, of fine moral arguments" (oodruff 103). However, Pericles' claim that Athens did not need support to uphold its borders falls completely flat in the face of Athenian desperation to hold onto its empire.

Thucydides, writing with the benefit of hindsight and the knowledge of the outcome of the war shows the Athenians in a far more ambiguous light than Pericles the politician, who was speaking to memorialize the dead. Thucydides shows the cowardice of the Athenians during the plague, as Athenians even turned against one another, in fear -- another example of might making right. Thucydides somewhat disenchanted view of Athens is partially due to his status as an exile -- he was deprived of his command due to no real fault of his own (he was unable to reach a critical strategic location in time to prevent it falling to…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Thucydides. On justice, power, and human nature: the essence of Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War. Paul Woodruff (Ed.) Hackett, 1993.
View Full Essay

Athens Over Several Hundred Years Moved From

Words: 2084 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92619207

Athens over several hundred years moved from rule by kings to full peasant democracy. Did aristocrats ever really lose power or did they find new ways to keep it?

In Athens, the aristocrats did lose a certain amount of power with the advent of democracy. This is because there was a focus on providing everyone with some kind of voice in matters of public affairs. Yet, at the same time many of the ruling elite and philosophers were from the aristocracy. This meant that they were able to maintain positions of power. Despite the fact, that they lost a certain amount of influence. The combination of these factors is illustrating how the ruling class used their education and intellect to make themselves relevant during the process. As a result, they were able to use democracy as a way to change the perceptions of the citizens of Athens. In this case,…… [Read More]

References

Athens Constitution. (n.d.).

Elis, W. (1989). Alcibiades. New York, NY: Routledge.

Rustin, J. (1989). The Peloponnesian War. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
View Full Essay

Plato -- Life and Works Plato Was

Words: 961 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12593436

Plato -- Life and orks

Plato was born in Athens circa 425 BC, just after the onset of the Peloponnesian ar between Athens and Sparta. He lost his father at an early age, but through his mother's marriage to a friend of the leading statesman and general of Athens at the time, Plato became affiliated with some of the most influential circles of a city enjoying a Golden Age. The early historian, Diogenes Laertius states that Plato's birth name was Aristocles and that he was nicknamed Platon, which was the Greek term for "broad," which could have both referred to Plato's intellectual capacity or his forehead/stature (Diogenes Laertius). Plato was reared in the house of his step-father, learning first the works of Cratylus, Parmenides and Pythagoras, and then learning under Socrates, who was friends with Plato's uncle Charmides. Thus, the meeting between Plato and Socrates is not surprising as they…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Diogenes Laertius. Life of Plato (trans R.D. Hicks). 26 Oct 2013. Web.

O'Connor, J.J., Robertson, E.F. "Plato." University of St. Andrews. 26 Oct 2013.

Web.

"Plato Biography." The European Graduate School. 26 Oct 2013. Web.
View Full Essay

IR Journal Who Started the

Words: 2573 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90629234

This basically means that the criticism to feminist political theories resembles more the substance of other I theories.

6. First off, we should discuss the differences between system level theories and state level theories. What are the benefits to studying international relations at the state level? What are the drawbacks?

In its most basic formulation, state level theories of international politics refer to those ideas which place the country at the core of political actions and decisions. Examples of this sense include the previously discussed realism and transnationalism schools of thought, which argue that the state places itself based on its particular interests. The relevant example of system level theories refers to the class system theories, and they are characterized by the fact that decisions and actions in international politics are not established based on national interests, but relative to the desires and power of specific groups -- generally those…… [Read More]

References:

Camestaro, N.A., Realism and Transnationalism: Competing Visions International Security, Boston University, Retrieved from http://www.bu.edu/law/central/jd/organizations/journals/international/volume25n1/documents/113-162.pdf on October 5, 2009

Hobson, J.M., the State and International Relations, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521643910

Kemos, a., the Influence of Thucydides in the Modern World, Hellenic Resources Network,  http://www.hri.org/por/thucydides.html  last accessed on October 5, 2009

Sayre, B., 2003, Peace Studies' War Against America, Canadian Center for Teaching Peace,  http://www.peace.ca/peacestudiescriticism.htm  last accessed on October 5, 2009
View Full Essay

Mental Health Nearly 40 of

Words: 2015 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30551883

New findings show that the spouses of veterans also experience mental health disorders, and the prevalence increases with the length of deployment (Mansfield, Kaufman, Marshall, Gaynes, Morrissey & Engel, 2010). When spouses are considered to be clients of health services, the need for improved and more robust resources becomes apparent. Moreover, spouses with mental health disorders present unique issues and questions for treatment. eturning soldiers may find that they have supportive partners who can lead to a mutually beneficial treatment relationship, via couples or family therapy. On the other hand, the mental health problems of the spouse can exacerbate those of the soldier, and vice-versa. Thus, a family systems approach can be extremely helpful when addressing the multifaceted mental health concerns among veterans.

Veteran health services are at a critical juncture. The need for targeted mental health interventions, ranging from screenings and assessments to therapies and treatments, has been proven…… [Read More]

References

Britt, T.W., Greene-Shortridge, T.M. & Castro, C.A. (2007). The Stigma of Mental Health Problems in the Military. Military Medicine 172(2), February 2007, pp. 157-161(5)

Bliese, P.D., Wright, K.M., Adler, a.B., Thomas, J.L. & Hoge, C.W. (2007). Timing of postcombat mental health assessments. Psychological Services 4(3), Aug 2007, 141-148.

Hoge, C.W., Auchterlonie, J.L. & Milliken, C.S. (2006). Mental Health Problems, Use of Mental Health Services, and Attrition From Military Service After Returning From Deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. JAMA. 2006;295(9):1023-1032. doi:10.1001/jama.295.9.1023.

Hoge, C.W., Castro, C.A., Messer, S.C., McGurk, D., Cotting, D.I. & Koffman, R.L. (2004). Combat Duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, Mental Health Problems, and Barriers to Care. N Engl J. Med 2004; 351:13-22July 1, 2004 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa040603
View Full Essay

Propylaea of the Ancient Acropolis

Words: 2381 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13626198

Mystery of the Propylaea

The Propylaea (ca.437-432 BCE) is considered one of the mysteries of Ancient Greece. The structure was the gate to the Acropolis which was built during the Periclean building endeavor, the rebuilding program for Athens which began in 437 BCE. The Propylaea were designed as a means of creating a massive and monumental entrance to the plateau of the acropolis, particularly the complex of shrines and sanctuaries there. The gateway itself is truly stunning, as it is indeed tremendous and thundering with precise details carved in dark Elysian marble, but it was never finished. The fact that this dramatic and stunning gateway was never finished is indeed a mysterious prospect, and in the academic field of archeology, a range of theories abound as to why it was never finished. This paper will examine the most dominant theories regarding this fact, and attempt to determine why this was…… [Read More]

References

Goette, H.R. Athens, Attica and the Megarid. New York: Routledge Press, 2012.

Hurwit, J.M. The Acropolis in the Age of Pericles. London: Cambridge Press, 2004.

Leonard, J. The Erechtheion: A jewel in the Acropolis crown. 2010.

http://www.ekathimerini.com/4Dcgi/4dcgi/_w_articles_wsite4_1_28/12/2010_37
View Full Essay

Is Peace Possible

Words: 1394 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43940170

Peace Possible in the Modern World?

Is peace possible in the world as we know it today? One side of the human brain, if idealistic, might reply: "Certainly peace is possible, even perpetual peace, but it is possible only if visionary, bold and intelligent leadership emerges in key international places." The other side of the brain could well answer like this: "Are you kidding? There are too many terrorists, and too many greedy, power-crazed nationalist leaders pushing and shoving and developing weapons to ever expect a peaceful world." And meanwhile, what did some of the great thinkers and philosophers have to say about the prospects of peace?

THUCYDIDES: Thucydides, in writing about the Peloponnesian War, makes it clear that human nature tends to dictate how history plays itself out, and he does not blame the Gods or other forces for this war. Thucydides, who is a young man, and an…… [Read More]

Reference

Brown, Chris, Nardin, Terry, and Rengger, Nicholas. International Relations in Political

Thought: Texts from the Ancient Greeks to the First World War. Cambridge, UK:

Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Thucydides, "History of the Peloponnesian War," in International Relations in Political Thought: Texts from the Ancient Greeks to the First World War, ed. Chris Brown, Terry Nardin, Nicholas Rengger (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 38.
View Full Essay

Self and the Other

Words: 2063 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24224074

Trojan Wars and Culture

The three epic stories namely, The Iliad, the Trojan Women, Pericle's Funeral Oration are powerfully written master pieces of work, that illustrate the element of horridness of war beautifully.

The Iliad

The story of Homer's Iliad focuses on the "rage of Achilles." eading this epic poem makes one believe that it is based entirely on the totality and gruesomeness of war. However, it tells us about the details of war with full description and information. Though war is an important aspect of the tale, but the real story is based on the remarkable fighter and hero-that man is none other than Achilles.

Achilles possesses the greatest military expertise of any of the Achaean ranks and also the greatest fighting ability out of all of the warriors, Trojan or Achaean. At the beginning of the epic, Achilles becomes liberated from his fellow warriors and retreats back to…… [Read More]

References

Homer, The Iliad

McLaren, The Trojan Women

Thucydides, Pericles's Funeral Oration
View Full Essay

Athens and Sparta Were the Two Opponents

Words: 1617 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88823958

Athens and Sparta were the two opponents of ancient Greece that clattered most and bestowed us with the majority of customs and traditions. Despite the fact that the two poleis were close together geographically, both differed greatly in their values and ways of living1.

Athens and Sparta: History

The enriching, intellectual and artistic heritage of ancient Athens to the world is immense and immeasurable. The indications to the Greek legacy that flourish in the civilization of Western Europe are attributed to Athenian civilization. Athens was made the strongest Greek city-state after the Persian Wars. Though it was a good deal smaller and less dominant than Sparta at the beginning of the wars, Athens was more energetic, efficient and effectual in the warfare against Persian Empire. Miltiades, Themistocles, and Cimon were the Athenian heroes who were mainly responsible for making the city strong. Athens reached the pinnacle of its cultural and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. "Athens and Sparta: Different Yet the Same." Social Studies for Kids. [database online]; available from  http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/articles/worldhistory/athenssparta.htm ; Internet; accessed 22 July 2012.

2. The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed., s.v."Athens, City, Greece" [database online]; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117004302; Internet; accessed 22 July 2012.

3. The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed., s.v."Sparta" [database online]; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117046808; Internet; accessed 22 July 2012.

4. Solanki, P. 2012. "Sparta Vs. Athens." Buzzle. [database online]; available from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/sparta-vs.-athens.html; Internet; accessed 22 July 2012.
View Full Essay

Fire in Ancient Warfare Greece

Words: 986 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40493590

104).

In Ancient Israel, the use of fire is also part of the tradition of warfare. For example, we are not sure whether the prophet Elijah is stating that the fire hurled against the Moabites is divine, or simply falls down upon the enemy from Israelite war machines: "If I am a man of God," Elijah replied, "may fired come down from heaven and consume you and your fifty men!" Then the fire of God fell from heaven and consumed him and his fifty men (2 Kings 1:12, New International Version).

Similarly, since most ancient gates were nothing but fortified wood, when the armies of Israel set out to use siege warfare, the rules for such are outlined in Deuteronomy 20: 10-20; however, use of flaming arrows, lit pots of oil shot from frames arranged on the outsides of walls -- more like a slingshot than a catapult, in fact,…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Bradford, a. (2000). With Arrow, Sword, and Spear: A History of Warfare in the Ancient World. Praeger.

Crosby, a. (2002). Throwing Fire: Projectile Technology Through History. Cambridge De Vaux, R. (1997). Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions. Erdmans.

Partington, J. (1998). A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder. Johns Hopkins University

Press.
View Full Essay

Athenian Navy How Would You

Words: 704 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38474771

This led to the development of different techniques such as ramming. As the presence of the Athenian navy, meant that there was a focus on those tactics that will benefit everyone the most in battle.

Once they disabled the enemy's ships, is the point when they had a significant advantage. This gives them the element of surprise by utilizing tactics that no one else is expecting. Furthermore, the Athenians continually were drilling for a variety of scenarios and exercises. This helped to better coordinate their fleet and prepare them for different situations they encountered.

These tactics were used in the Second Peloponnesian War to defeat the Corinthian fleet. In this particular case the Athenians deceived them; into thinking that they were retreating. However, after they were chased to a certain point, is when the Athenian navy turned around and attacked. This resulted in the Corinthians experiencing significant losses. These elements…… [Read More]

References

Baer, George. One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U.S. Navy, 1890-1990. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1996.

Starr, Chester G. The Influence of Sea Power on Ancient History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Turabian Format  http://www.libs.uga.edu/ref/turabian2009.pdf 

Baer, George. One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U.S. Navy, 1890-1990. (Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1996).1-9.
View Full Essay

Aristotle Plato Thucydides

Words: 677 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35478847

theorists regarding political stability, the ideas and opinions of Aristotle, Plato, and Thucydides will be mentioned by thoroughly analyzing the viewpoints of these theorists in their books such as: Aristotle's "The Politics" And "Nicomachean Ethics," Plato's "The Republic," and Thucydides "The

Peloponnesian War." The analysis and observations of the viewpoints of these theorists will be included in the paper. The question on which the analysis will be based is as under:

What is the key to political stability, according to Aristotle? Why? Compare Plato or Thucydides' answers to this question.

Political stability is one of the most difficult problem on which many attempts have been made by the government to gain a stable political system so that the people living in the country can have an independent and free life. History and researches show that despite of many attempts the leaders have failed to maintain stable and under controlled political…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Thucydides Is Known as One of the

Words: 1418 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21752285

Thucydides is known as one of the greatest historians of ancient Greece. This paper focuses on the life, work and philosophy of Thucydides. The paper also discusses the influence and significance of his theories and principles in the field of education.

THUCYDIDES

Thucydides was one of the greatest Greek historians who is known for his Magnus opus, "History of Peloponnesian War." This account of the great Peloponnesian War is not exactly complete as it only presents the events that took place during 431 to 411 B.C. But the reason why it is remembered and read as one of the most perfect Greek literatures is because it reflects Thucydides' genuinely original style interspersed with wisdom and objectivity which most other historians of that period lacked. There is still some confusion about the exact year of his birth as some ancient historians have given dates, which clash with dates provided by modern…… [Read More]

References

Ancient History Sourcebook: 11th Brittanica: Thucydides

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/eb11-thucydides.html

Benjamin Jowett, Thucydides first edition (London: Oxford University Press, 1881), pages 125-135

Thucydides, Works of Thucydides: Sample Essay Questions And Answers. Monarch Notes, 01-01-1963.
View Full Essay

Melian Dialogue an Example of

Words: 707 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 352329

The Athenians have no dislike of the Melians, and are happy to let the islanders live and let live within the Athenian sphere of influence, but they will retaliate without mercy if they oppose Athenian self-interest in the region. The Melians offer Athens neutrality, which Athens says would be just as detrimental to Athenian interests in the region as an open Melian alliance with Sparta, as it would set a bad example to other Athenian colonies: "is rather islanders like yourselves, outside our empire, and subjects smarting under the yoke, who would be the most likely to take a rash step and lead themselves and us into obvious danger" (Chapter XVII). The Melians say it would be cowardice to not resist, even if it seems foolish.

Does this dialogue prove the rational actor theory of statehood that holds that states always act in their own self-interest? On one hand, the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Thucydides. "The Melian Dialogue." From "The History of the Peloponnesian War."

26 Jan 2006] http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/melian.htm
View Full Essay

Plato's Apology and Socrates' Trial

Words: 3029 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90454845

To wit, in Socrates' day, there were no official government prosecutors (commonly referred to in modern America as "District Attorneys"); in effect, any citizen could bring an indictment against any other citizen, and call for a trial. And that's basically what happened to Socrates.

Here in America, in 2006, notwithstanding what Vice President Cheney said, President George . Bush stated, "I will never question the patriotism of somebody who disagrees with me." Bush was responding to a reporter's question on August 21; Bush was asked if he believed, according to http://mediamatters.org, that the "Democrats advocating for U.S. withdrawal from Iraq 'embolden Al Qaeda types' as...Cheney similarly stated. Bush's answer was, "I will never question the patriotism of somebody who disagrees with me... [although] leaving [Iraq] before the job would be done would be to send a signal to our troops that the sacrifices they made were not worth it...this has…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allen, R.E. (1980). Socrates and Legal Obligation. Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis

Press.

American Sociological Association. (2006). "Statement...on Creationism and Related Religious

Doctrines in U.S. Science Education." Retrieved 18 Oct. 2006 at  http://www.asanet.org .
View Full Essay

Hoplite Warfare and Its Development

Words: 2686 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88922730

As the formation collides with one another, spheres are aimed at the groin of each opponent. The sword swings an aim towards an enemies head and vital parts of the body. Extreme agility and presence of mind are required to every hoplite in the exhausting close combat.

The defeated phalanx has only two choices to survive: The first option would be is to drop their weapons and flee hastily without being pursued by the victorious opponent which is normal in Greek Warfare. The second option is to retreat in the same formation in an orderly manner. However, this situation based on historical events often happens. After which, 5. victory was enforced by ransoming the fallen back to the defeated, called the "custom of the Greeks"(Wikipedia Encyclopedia, 2005).

History: Development and Downfall

As the economy of Ancient Greece developed, city states have focused their attention in developing a much reliable armies…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Athenian Daily Life; Roger Dunkle, Brooklyn College (2005) Extracted September 25, 2006: Website:

http://depthome.brooklyn.cuny.edu/classics/dunkle/athnlife/warfare1.htm

The Development of the Greek World 800-500 BC; Jeffery Lumb; HSC Online (2006) Extracted September 25, 2006 Website:

http://hsc.csu.edu.au/ancient_history/historical_periods/greece/greek_world/hoplitewarfare.htm
View Full Essay

Democracy the Classical Features of

Words: 3340 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86333447

15).

He argues that there is a duty resting on convention, which he considers in a deep and morally weighty sense, based on an implied but nonetheless binding contract between the individual and the state:

It is a fact, then," they would say, "that you are breaking covenants and undertakings made with us, although you mad them under no compulsion of misunderstanding, and were not compelled to decide in a limited time; you had seventy years in which you could have left the country, if you were not satisfied with us of felt that the agreements were unjust (Plato, 1993, p. 89).

In other words, Socrates has enjoyed the benefit of the laws all his life and cannot now break them without breaking an implicit agreement he has made with the state based on his acceptance of the law over his lifetime.

Plato's ideal state is not a democracy, and…… [Read More]

References

Burn, a.R. (1949). Pericles and Athens. New York: Macmillan.

Kimball, R. (2002). Freedom and Duty: Pericles and Our Times. The National Interest, 81-85.

Lakoff, S.A. (1996). Democracy: History, Theory, Practice. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.

Plutarch (1909). Plutarch's Lives: Volume 12. New York: P.F. Collier & Son.
View Full Essay

Ritualistic Religious and Practical Uses of Public

Words: 2223 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16908863

RITUALISTIC, RELIGIOUS, AND PRACTICAL USES OF PULIC SPACE AT THE ATHENIAN ACROPOLIS AND TRAJAN'S FORUM

Acropolis is renowned as a fortified natural stronghold or citadel in ancient Greece. Greeks built their towns in plains near or around a rocky hill that could easily be fortified and defended. Nearly every Greek city had its acropolis, which provided a safe place of refuge for townspeople during times of turmoil or war. Rulers of the town often lived within the walls of this stronghold. In many cases the acropolis became the site of temples and public buildings and thus served as the town's religious center, focal point of its public life, and as a place of refuge.

The Athenian Acropolis is the most well-known acropolis of the ancient world. Ruins of its temples and their sculptures are widely regarded as the finest examples of ancient Greek art and architecture. uilt on a limestone…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Allen, J.T. "On the Athenian Theater Before 441 B.C." University of California Publishers in Classical Archaeology, Berkley: University of California Press 1.no.6 (1937) 169-172

Andronicos, Manolis. The Acropolis. Athens, Greece: Ekdotike Athenon S.A., 1975.

Bennett, J., Trajan Optimus Princeps. A Life and Times (London and New York, 1997)

Bieber, M. History of the Greek and Roman Theater New Jersey: Princeton University Press (1961)
View Full Essay

Experts Believe That the Battle

Words: 2392 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70592033

Thucydides was an Athenian, but had very little reason for offering a distorted view of the war that was eventually won by Sparta.

Jackson states, "Thucydides was an active participant in Athens for a time, he had a network of contacts, while banished to Thrace he observed the war there first hand, and as an Athenian exile he traveled along the Peloponnese" (Jackson, p.175). Thucydides wrote of a Sparta that used an eight deep fighting stance against the Athenians who could not, or did not, adapt to a style that would lead to victory when battling against that type of tactic.

Other army tactics began to be used after the Peloponnesian ar, many of which were introduced by the Spartans in order to maintain their military might. One such tactic would play a key role in the battle of Leuctra.

Of particular relevance to Leuctra, however, was the battle of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cawkwell, G.L. (1983) the Decline of Sparta, Classical Quarterly, Vol. 33, Issue ii, pp. 385-400

Hind, a. (2006) Weaponry: It took a humiliating major defeat to convince the Spartans to adopt the bow and arrow, Military History, Vol. 23, Issue 1, pp. 12-14

Jackson, M.W., (2007) Cracking the Thucydides code, Antioch Review, Vol. 65, Number 1, pp. 173-184

Walker, M., (2001) Bush's Choice: Athens or Sparta, World Policy, Vol. 18, Number 2, pp. 1-9
View Full Essay

Thucydides' Histories -- the Making

Words: 1139 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94047482

As an historian and a citizen of that democratic city, Thucydides was faced with a task no less daunting -- how to make the saga of a losing war seem like a triumph, or at least seem interesting and relevant, rather than something Athens wished to forget.

hen reading Thucydides, one does not read about an ancient war, rather one is witness to the process of historical story, of a history of narrative being created, even the first citing of 'spin' if you like. Unlike the Spartans, for the Athenians in Pericles' oration, "advancement in public life falls to reputation for capacity," and the freedom enjoyed "in our government extends also to our ordinary life. There, far from exercising a jealous surveillance over each other, we do not feel called upon to be angry with our neighbor for doing what he likes, or even to indulge in those injurious looks…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Thucydides. "The Histories: The History of the Peloponnesian War." MIT Classical Archive. 2004. 6 Dec 2004  http://classics.mit.edu/Thucydides/pelopwar.2.second.html
View Full Essay

Institute Such Strict Military Controls Sparta's Militarism

Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49131381

institute such strict military controls?

Sparta's militarism and commitment to maintaining a standing army was no accident. "Sparta seems to have developed gradually as a practical response to unusual circumstances," ("History of Sparta," n.d.). "The evolution of the Spartan army began during the heroic Mycenaean age (1600 BCE to 1100 BCE), a time in Greek history when tactics were simple and warriors sought individual glory (and fought out of formation)," ("The Spartan Military," 2010). Moreover, the Dorians staged frequent invasions into the area. Sparta needed to protect its borders. By the 8th century B.C.E., Spartan leaders realized the value of a standing army and implemented one in the interests of what can be called national security. Later, Spartan militarism would threaten Athenian dominance. Sparta found itself in the situation of needing to institute strict military controls as a matter of self-preservation.

One reason why Sparta instituted strict military controls was…… [Read More]

References

Gill, N.H. (n.d.). Sparta: A Military State. Retrieved online: http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/sparta/a/spartamilitstat.htm

"History of Sparta," (n.d.). History World. Retrieved online:  http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ac44 

Sekunda, N. (1998). The Spartan Army. Osprey.

"The Spartan Military," (2010). Ancient Military.com. Retrieved online:  http://www.ancientmilitary.com/spartan-military.htm
View Full Essay

Thucydides and Democracy

Words: 2260 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67664112

Salvaging Democracy consent of the governed) then one is not in a democracy, though democratic elements may exist. America, for example, was founded as a republic and not as a democracy (though with time it has shifted towards being more ogliarchical in some aspects and more democratic in others). The more traditional definition of democracy needs to be understood if one is to approach the philosophy of the classical Greek philosophers. Ancient Greece, one must understand, is one of the few places in the world or in history where democracy has actually been practiced in a state setting. The polises of Greece such as Athens were frequently democratic, and all citizens had a right to vote on issues ranging from laws to criminal trials. True Democracy has only thrived in classical Greece, yet the greatest Greek philosophers condemned it in favor of a more Republican or even Aristocratic regime that…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Aristotle. Politics. Trans. Benjamin Jowett. New York: Dover Publications, 2000.

Plato. The Republic. Trans. G.M. Grube. New York: Hackett Publishing Company, 1992.

Thucydides. The History of the Peloponnesian War (excerpt). Trans. Richard Crawley. Archived at  http://ancienthistory.about.com/library/bl/bl_thucydides_funeral.htm
View Full Essay

Plato and Thucydides

Words: 911 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66496103

Thucydides and Plato had conflicting methods in their attitudes toward the good life. Thucydides demonstrates empirical thinking in his readings of human nature and comportment throughout the Peloponnesian War and Plato demonstrates normative thinking in the writing within his books and discourses in particular Gorigia. Plato's interpretations of a good life revolve on principles that an individual has reached contentment. What contentment means to Plato is a person who has no desires because that person possesses all-encompassing love in his/her life.

Plato understood this to be equal for everyone and that displaying entire virtue is accessible by everyone. Virtue is accessed by everyone when one has all love and none of the desires. This is how Plato views access to virtue which is markedly different from Thucydides' perspective. Plato's understanding of love more so involves a mythological comprehension of the world.

The Greek Historian, Thucydides, however, demonstrated his imperialistic methodology…… [Read More]

References

Benardete, S. (2009). The rhetoric of morality and philosophy: Plato's Gorgias and Phaedrus. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Mara, G.M. (2008). The civic conversations of Thucydides and Plato: Classical political philosophy and the limits of democracy. Albany: SUNY Press.

Van, P.R., & Westfall, C.W. (1993). Architectural principles in the age of historicism. New Haven: Yale University Press.
View Full Essay

European Union Member States Relations With Their Overseas Territories

Words: 17554 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16781713

political framework of EU and OCT

European Union (EU) and Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) are in association with each other via a system which is based on the provisions of part IV of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), consisting of detailed rules and measures which are laid down in the document issued on 27th November 2001 title Oversees Association Decision. The expiry date of this association decision is 31st December 2013. Stress has been laid down by the European Council in its conclusions issued on 22nd December 2009 that the relationship between OCT and EU should continuously be updated in order to reflect latest developments not only in EU and OCT but thorough out the world. The commission has also been encouraged to make revisions to the Overseas Association Decision and present it in front of the council prior to July 2012 (Hill et al.,…… [Read More]

References

Agnew John, "Geopolitics re-vision world politics," Routledge Taylor & Francies Group, pp 1-5

Alan Taylor, American Colonies: New York: Viking, 2001, pp. 57 -- 8.

Baldwin, David. Ed. Neo-Realism And Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate, New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

Balzacq, T. (Ed.). Understanding securitization theory. The design and evolution of security problems. Oxon: Routledge, 2010.
View Full Essay

Weapons of Mass Destruction Before

Words: 2438 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41998215

(ebehn M.) Another example from the 1700's of the use of bacterial agent in war was in the conflict between ussia and Sweden in 1710. There are reports that the ussians used the bodies of plague victim to create an epidemic among the enemy. (HISTOY of BIOLOGICAL WAFAE)

There is also the infamous incident in American history of the intentional infection of the native Indians with smallpox. "An English general, Sir Jeffery Amherst, surreptitiously provided the Indians loyal to the French with blankets infected with smallpox virus. The resulting epidemic decimated the Indians." (HISTOY of BIOLOGICAL WAFAE)

2.3. The modern technological era and weapons of mass destruction.

With the advent of the modern industrial age there was a rapid development of technology. This was also to lead to the equally rapid growth in the development of even more and more destructive and indiscriminate weapons of destruction. The most well-known and…… [Read More]

References

HISTORY of BIOLOGICAL WARFARE. Retrieved 17 February, 2007, at  http://www.gulfwarvets.com/biowar.htm 

History of Epidemics and Plagues (2001) Retrieved 17 February, 2007, at  http://uhavax.hartford.edu/bugl/histepi.htm 

Johnson T.J. A History of Biological Warfare from 300 B.C.E. To the Present.

Retrieved 17 February, 2007, at http://www.aarc.org/resources/biological/history.asp
View Full Essay

Organized Crime Related intelligence

Words: 3194 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92951106

Organized Crime elated Intelligence

Those interested in global intelligence would recognize acronyms like CIA, KGB and MSS however for the sake of those who have no knowledge in this area, they mean Central Intelligence Agency -- United States, KGB (Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti) -- Soviet Union/ussia, and the Ministry for State Security (MSS) -- China and their activities are covered well by contemporary media. However, here we consider the less famous and covert intelligence agencies that operate currently or used to exist. A number of these agencies had specific job descriptions while the function of the rest were quite vague, however, all these agencies fulfilled their common responsibility of giving their superiors in-depth knowledge of a situation to aid their decisions (Powell, 2014)

The Frumentarii

The Frumentarii, who bear close similarities to the contemporary "secret police" like the SAVAK of Iran and the Kempeitai who existed in Japan during World War…… [Read More]

References

Greenberg, M. R., & Haass, R. (1996). Making Intelligence smarter. Council on Foreign Relations.

Juul, P. (2013, july 23). Adapting to the Future of Intelligence Gathering. Retrieved from American Progress:  http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/security/reports/2013/07/23/70281/adapting-to-the-future-of-intelligence-gathering/ 

Nomikos, J. M. (2008). Greek Intelligence Service: A Brief Description. European Journal of Intelligence Studies.

Powell, J. (2014, July 11). A Historical View of Intelligence Gathering: From the Kryptia to the CIA. Retrieved from  http://sofrep.com/37879/obscure-intelligence-agents-agencies-part-1/
View Full Essay

Trade Show Industry in Germany

Words: 31155 Length: 80 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38292092

Therefore, this study is significant because it explores a very important channel of marketing and communication in the B2B market.

The study is important for a second reason that international trade is becoming a cause for concern after the global recession. The economies of various countries have been affected after a decline in their purchasing power. It is said that economic recovery is possible through an increase in trade and opening up of markets (OECD, 2009). As a result, governments are trying to find new ways of stimulating trade in order to increase demand in the national economy and create more jobs to reduce unemployment. Trade shows can be an effective means of stimulating trade activity by bringing together buyers and sellers in a single location. This study will be useful for governments because it will help them to identify the economic, regulatory, legal, and logistical issues that need to…… [Read More]

UFI.(2009). The Trade Fair Industry in Asia, 5th edition: A UFI report researched and compiled by Business Strategies Group Executive Summary -- for UFI members only." Business Strategies Group Ltd. [online] Available at http://www.ufi.org/media/membersarea/studies_reports/2009_bsg_report_summary_andorder_form.pdf [Accessed 10 May, 2012].

Viardot, E. (2004). Successful Marketing Strategy for High-Tech Firms. Volume 5. NY: Artech House

Yeshin, T. (2006). Sales Promotion. NY:Cengage Learning
View Full Essay

Modern Political Thought

Words: 4396 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54047318

Politics

Modern Political Thought

The transition from a feudal serf economy to a capitalist market economy was one of the fundamental shifts which have produced modernity as we know it. This essay aims to understand how the authors of The Prince and Leviathan, Niccolo Machiavelli and Thomas Hobbes would think about the transition and how these two great minds would relate to the issue of capitalism. Capitalism is a funny game that continually creates a series of boom and bust cycles throughout our modern history. Take the 1926 real estate craze that occurred in Florida. The United States economy was cooking along on all cylinders and good times were everywhere. No one was thinking about the Great Depression that would occur just a few years later. The rich and happy of 1926 figured that all was well as often is the case in Capitalism. Prosperity and growth were infinite --…… [Read More]

Works Cited, continued

Solomon, Jay. (2009). "U.S., India Expand Counterterrorism Cooperation." Wall Street Journal Online. (2009). Retrieved on November 25, 2009 from online.wsj at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB125907299030362349.htmlWallerstein, Immanuel. (1983): "Historical Capitalism." Thetford Press, Limited: Norfolk.

White, Michael (2007). "Machiavelli, A Man Misunderstood." Abacus.
View Full Essay

Philip II and the Growth

Words: 1578 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47374289

Overall, Philip's main goal was to create a united Macedonia and thus instill in his people the desire to bring about the collapse of the Persian Empire which in his eyes would bring about much-needed economic changes in Macedonian society, all for the good of its citizens and its king.

One of Philip's most important triumphs as king of Macedonia prior to the rise of Alexander the Great was the creation of the League of Corinth which came about after the battle of Chaeronea in oeotia in 338 .C.E. Although the defeated Greek states were allowed to keep their internal freedoms, they were compelled by Philip to join his alliance with himself as its undisputed leader. The creation of this league was a decisive turning point in the history of ancient Greece, for never again would Greek states be allowed to make their own foreign policies without considering the wishes…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ginouves, Rene. Macedonia: From Philip II to the Roman Conquest. NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994.

Parker, Geoffrey. The Grand Strategy of Philip II. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press,

Philip II of Macedon Biography." History of Macedonia. 2003. Internet. Retrieved November 10, 2008 at http://www.historyofmacedonia.org/AncientMacedoniaPhilipofMacedon.html.
View Full Essay

Formation of Ancient Societies the

Words: 2084 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91389503

Both Spartan men and women exercised together in the nude, and both were "encouraged to improve their intellectual skills" ("omen in Ancient Greece"). Being a woman in Sparta certainly ensured a greater sense of gender equality -- but that does not necessarily mean Sparta was the preferred residence of women in Greece. After all, Sparta did without a lot of the creature comforts that other city-states like Athens took for granted as essential to civilization. There is a reason the phrase "Spartan living" has come to be synonymous with the bare necessities.

As for variance in the social structure of the various states, democracy prevailed in Athens for a time (but so did tyranny and corruption as well). Thebes also had its monarchy and later on its heroic warrior citizens. Sparta had two kings who ruled simultaneously. But its social structure was also more slave-based than anywhere else. In fact,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Haaren, John. Famous Men of Rome. NY: American Book Company, 1904.

Johnston, Sarah. Religions of the Ancient World. Harvard University Press, 2004.

Kyziridis, Theocharis. "Notes on the History of Schizophrenia." German Journal of Psychiatry, vol 8, 42-48, 2005.

Sikora, Jack. Religions of India. Lincoln, NE: Writer's Club Press, 2002.
View Full Essay

Parthenon Was an Architectural Achievement

Words: 1819 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53532653

g., the finding last year at Athens of the hand of Zeus of the east pediment)" the Parthenon continues to yield intellectual fruit through archeological excavation and discovery (Bruno xiv). As age replaces age with new speculations, scholars reappraise this epic piece of architecture, for "speculations of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries are already mostly out of date, and original source materials are rare" (Bruno xiv). hat historians do, as a rule, have to go on are the stories preserved by Plutarch, who reflects a "spirit that undoubtedly prevailed at Athens as a plan took shape to reconstruct the sanctuary which had been left in ruins by the Persians" (Bruno xiv). This plan was so Athenian to the core that even (as Plutarch mentions) the animals seemed to throw their very being into the operation.

Conclusion

In conclusion, Greek architecture has produced some of the world's finest marvels, and was…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bruno, Vincent. The Parthenon. NY W.W. Norton & Company, 1996. Print.

Fergusson, James. The Parthenon. London: William Clowes and Sons, Limited, 1883.

Print.

"The Greeks: Crucible of Civilization." PBS. Web. 28 Nov 2011.
View Full Essay

Culture Essay

Words: 3113 Length: Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

This essay examines the meaning of culture and provides several possible titles and topics that may be used as starting points for developing a paper on culture. It discusses the definition of culture, how culture is developed, and how cultures change. It shows how cultural identity and cultural differences are formed and how culture diversity is a fact of life. It also explains why in spite of diverse cultures commonly existing in one group there is usually a dominant culture that comes to the fore and is promoted by the leaders of the group. The essay closes with recommendations for other ways in which a paper on culture can be written.

Culture is the heart and soul of a society, group or organization: it is the manifestation of what a particular set of people thinks, feels, believes in, and holds as ideal. It is the communication of what a people…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Timeline From Abraham to Birth of Christ

Words: 490 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24545816

Abraham to Jesus with other Major Historical Events

2100 BC: Abraham moves to Canaan under a direct order from God. Canaan later becomes Israel.

2000 BC: Jacob, grandson of Abraham, is born in Canaan. Jacob is later renamed Israel. His 12 sons become the heads of the 12 Tribes of Israel.

Hammurabi builds up Babylon in the Fertile Crescent.

The Minoan Bronze Age in Crete.

1900 BC: One of Jacob's sons (Joseph) is sold into slavery. Joseph rises to power in Egypt.

1500 BC: The Indian Hindu Scriptures the Rig-Veda are completed.

1400 BC: The Israelites (after being enslaved for four centuries by Pharaoh) are led by Moses out of Egypt. Joshua takes the lead after Moses dies. It is to Moses that the first five books of the Old Testament are attributed.

1200 BC: The Trojan War.

1000 BC: Saul becomes king of the Israelites. David is anointed. David…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Comparison of Rome and Athens

Words: 1861 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54289158

Roman Empire and the Athenian Empire were alike in many ways. oth developed a culture based on the same mythology in order to unite their people in belief (the Romans Latinized the Greek gods and goddesses but the narratives remained largely the same). Individuals like Socrates in Athens or the early Christians in Rome were persecuted for teaching a faith that opposed the native mythology (Haaren, 2010). oth empires expanded their influence through war: the Romans conquered lands as far away as England, while the Athenians kept mainly to Greece but did repel invaders (like the Persians) and war against other city-states (as in the Peloponnesian Wars) in order to secure their own routes, borders and dominance in the region (Rome similarly destroyed Carthage multiple times so as to maintain its dominance). oth Rome and Athens were culturally and militarily suited to dominate, and this paper will describe how both…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Haaren, J. (2010). Famous Men of Greece. NY: ReadaClassic.

This classic work by Haaren is certainly a scholarly source, as Haaren was a highly respected classics professor and president of the department of pedagogy at Brooklyn Institute. His Famous Men series has been used by educators for decades to inform students about the history of the ancient civilizations. In this book, Haaren describes the lives and times of various important Grecian figures, including Pericles and Socrates. I plan on using this source to provide information on Athens and what it achieved during its height of empire as well as how it achieved it.

Homer. (2004). The Iliad. NY: Cambridge University Press.

Homer's epic poem is a classic of literature that has been respected, admired, taught and read for centuries. It provides insight into the Grecian mind as well as how the Greeks used mythology in their own lives. I plan to use this source in order to support the argument that Athens used culture to maintain its empire -- by building temples to the gods and goddesses, by celebrating art (drama), and by memorializing the heroic deeds of its ancestors.
View Full Essay

Management and Leadership Strategies Were

Words: 5635 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38896307

Specifically, Caesar masterfully showed how through building alliances one may achieve power and rise to the top of the leadership tier even in a group or society as vast as the Ancient Roman Empire (Abbott, 1901, p.385).

The Roman Empire also provides an example of organizational systems within the public domain through the Republican system. In the Roman Republican system of government, one man did not have the power to make law. Instead, power was balanced amongst three different branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial ("The Roman Empire"). In fact, this form of government introduced the concept of a senatorial body to the public. In Rome, the Senate was designed as a separate body of government from that of the Emperor so as to avoid the tyranny of one leader. Through the advent of the Senate, the Romans laid the groundwork for leadership structure of Britain…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Difficult and Not Totally Secure

Words: 2033 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41734246



Particularly post war era women entered the workforce in huge numbers but there were many hindrances in their way as they tried to secure their credit. They had to found for the ownership of property as well as equal right to employment opportunities and salary. The idea of women being spender in the house also strengthened. As a result of reforms in the society women became powerful economically and socially.

eligious leaders were of the opinion that "religious principles should be broadened so as to include 'all useful social theories' lest Christianity be left behind in the onward march of society." (Charles Howard Hopkins, 1940. P.32)

As envisaged by the Christian religious leaders, the office of deaconess declared that women can a deaconess, with the provision that she holds right spirit and the appropriate training (Golder, 1908) yet the best role for her lies under the institution of marriage.

During…… [Read More]

References

Charles Howard Hopkins, "The Rise of the Social Gospel in American Protestantism 1865-1915" New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1940, p. 32.

Charles Howard Hopkins, "The Rise of the Social Gospel in American Protestantism 1865-1915" New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1940, p. 32.

Chatman, S.. "Discourse: Non-narrated stories. In S. Chatman (Ed.), Story and discourse: Narrative structure in fiction and film" (pp. 146-195). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 1978

Christian Golder, "History of the Deaconess Movement in the Christian Church" Cincinnati, OH: Jennings and Pye, 1908. pp. 527-528.
View Full Essay

Socrates Was Not an Enemy to the

Words: 1560 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92846544

Socrates as Not an Enemy to the State

as Socrates an enemy of the state? There are two appropriate answers -- "yes" and "no." But first a definition of "enemy" is needed. In Mark Twain's short story "The Mysterious Stranger," Satan explains why there will always be war. It is because "a loud little handful" at first instigates it then, "…the great, big, dull bulk of the nation will rub its sleepy eyes and try to make out why there should be a war… [and later] statesmen… [will] blame…the nation that is attacked" -- in other words, as long as the "enemy" is identified, there will always be war. Therefore, an "enemy" is not just someone to distrust or despise, or someone who threatens the peace and safety of a community, but someone to blame. In the case of Socrates and his trial, the court apparently found Socrates to be…… [Read More]

Works Cited (In addition to Dr. Urban)

Ahbel-Rappe, Sara. Socrates: A Guide for the Perplexed. New York: Continuum International

Publishing Group, 2009.

Cooper, John Madison. The Trial and Death of Socrates: Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Death

Scene from Phaedo. Cambridge, MA: Hackett Publishing, 2000.
View Full Essay

Parthenon in Its Day the

Words: 987 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38380635

The temple itself was built to embody Athena's presence, both in its intention and in its physical construction.

For example, the columns used in Greek temples were the Doric, Ionic, and the Corinthian. The Doric was "not only a type of column, but an 'order'; this means that the temples of the Doric order not only have this type of column, but also have a certain structure at the upper levels" (Silverman). Furthermore, there were other stylistic elements of the Parthenon that demonstrated its religious significance. The Metopes were a series of small structures on the sides of the Parthenon. The Metopes depicted various battles between order and chaos. The Pediments on the Parthenon, which are relief sculptures that are larger than the Metopes, depict events in the life of Athena. In addition, there is a frieze running along the upper edge of the wall of the Parthenon. The frieze…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Parthenon." Wikipedia. 2005. Wikipedia. 12 Mar. 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthenon.

Parthenon, Athens, Greece." Places of Peace and Power. 2005. Sacredsites. 12 Mar. 2005 http://www.sacredsites.com/europe/greece/parthenon.html.

Silverman, David. "The Parthenon." Humanities. 2005. Reed College. 12 Mar. 2005 http://academic.reed.edu/humanities/110Tech/Parthenon.html.
View Full Essay

Ancient Kingdoms- Expansion and Empire Building Ancient

Words: 1649 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27599323

Ancient Kingdoms- Expansion and Empire Building

Ancient kingdoms and their expansion strategies were uniform throughout the ancient world. Persia, Rome, Athens and Sparta had expanded their kingdoms by means of conquests, wars and consolidation. The enlargement of kingdoms had but one purpose i.e. security as Thomas Hobbes notes: "If there is no power erected, or not great enough for our security, every man will and may lawfully rely on his own strength for caution against all other men" (99). Greece, Russia and all other major empires of the ancient world had their focus on just one thing, security which they sought through either conquests or consolidation with weaker nations.

It is strange but true that all major empires especially Sparta, Athens and Persia have histories that were interconnected. It was always believed both by the rulers and the ruled that mightier forces had the right to rule and for this…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

History of the Peloponessian War, Thucydides

Herodotus, Translations of the Histories, by A. de Selincourt

Hobbes, Thomas. "Of Commonwealth." Leviathan. Ed. Nelle Fuller. New York:

Everyman's Library, 1973.
View Full Essay

Inca Throughout the History of

Words: 1645 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73498248



Architecture

Naturally, the ruins of Cuzco and Machu Pichu of which some monuments and constructions are intact tells us that the Ican were master masons and builders. Large slabs of stone were put together to design these complex and beautiful structures. (Kleiner and Mamiya, 2006) What is also interesting is that there was no cement or mortar put between the stones to hold them in place. The massive stones fit together so well, that they could not be dislodged. It has also stood the test of time. There has been a significant scientific effort to find out (using computers and simulations) how the Incas built these monuments without the benefit of advances of science. Various theories have been advanced, but modern science cannot explain Incan architecture. (Hemmings and anney, 1982)

The End of the Incan Civilization

It is said that the end of the civilization happens from within. The weight…… [Read More]

References

Bauer, Brian S. The Sacred Landscape of the Inca: The Cusco Ceque System. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1998.

Hemmings, John, and Edward Ranney. Monuments of the Incas. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1982.

Julien, Catherine. Reading Inca History. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2000.

Kleiner, Fred S., and Christin J. Mamiya. Gardner's Art through Teh Ages: Non-Western Perspectives. New York: Thomson and Wadsworth, 2006.
View Full Essay

Aristophanes Clouds

Words: 1207 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53144832

repeatedly, and indeed many of us believe to be true, that there is nothing new under the sun, it is nevertheless always a little startling to find that issues that we consider to be thoroughly modern have in fact been being discussed for thousands of years. This is the case when one reads Aristophanes's The Clouds, which is a very witty indictment of new educational ideas in vogue during his lifetime in Athens.

hat makes this work so entertaining - other than the language itself, which we can appreciate even in translation - is the fact Aristophanes has a gift for allowing us to see the real silliness of the ways in which education and pedagogy are politicized. This play is not simply a debate about the best way in which to teach the youth of Athens. Rather, it is about how different groups holding power in Athenian society can…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aristophanes. The Clouds. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1989.

Jepsen, L. The Art of Aeschylus. Berkeley: UC Press, 1983.  http://classics.mit.edu/Aristophanes/clouds.html
View Full Essay

Rhetorical Theory

Words: 2889 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3958178

Plato: Life, Philosophies, And Influence

Time Period Plato Lived in.

Plato was born in 428 BC and grew up in a time of major political change in Ancient Greece. The Peloponnesian ar began a few years after he was born and continued until he was twenty. Plato would have been liable to serve in the military after 407 BC and it is thought that he probably served in the final years of the war (Luce 94).

During the final years of the war, open disloyalty to democracy grew. This led to a period where the group known as the Thirty Tyrants ruled Athens. This group included two of Plato's relatives, Critias and Charmides. hile Plato was tied to the group through family, it is believed that he was against their beliefs and actions. These actions included confiscating goods from wealthy citizens and putting many individuals to death (Irwin 85). At…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Appiah, A. Necessary Questions: An Introduction to Philosophy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989.

Irwin, T. A History of Western Philosophy: Classical Thought. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Luce, J.V. An Introduction to Greek Philosophy. London: Thomas and Hudson, 1992.

Plato." The Columbia Encyclopedia. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001. Retrieved October 23, 2002. URL: http://www.bartleby.com/65/pl/Plato.html
View Full Essay

Plato and the Yahoos Week

Words: 1303 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86212440

" Pericles said that Athenians did not have to be forced to chose the lot of the soldier, they loved the land that gave them the freedom to chose to live the way they wanted, rather than to fulfill a predetermined ideal and thus, when necessary: "They resigned to hope their unknown chance of happiness; but in the face of death they resolved to rely upon themselves alone." In a democracy, the citizen's sense of self-reliance is its life-blood. Values are created and chosen by consensus and the consent of the governed, not by a single, 'philosophical' intelligence and thus the values are more enthusiastically believed, and because they exercise choice from birth, people more able to undertake creative intellectual change, as they did in ancient Athens. The limits of Yahoo society, although it seems to be more socially stable than most democracies, is that people will not believe in…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Socrates' Speech in Plato's Apology It Is

Words: 1373 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13534290

Socrates' speech in Plato's Apology. It is this author's opinion that Socrates' position that the unexamined life is not worth living has validity. We will see that this is the case as we examine Socrates' spontaneous oration regarding virtue and how it can not be learned. Obviously, if the lives of these youths had been virtuous, then it might have been possible for them to learn this character trait and to prove Socrates wrong. This is the case because only when someone examines their life do they shake off their bigotry and raise their awareness to a higher level.

As alluded to in the introduction, Socrates is correct that the unexamined life is not worth living. This is because only those people who struggle to resolve the contradictions in their life have an existence that is real. Those who do not are at best ignorant and at worst bigots who…… [Read More]

References

Bloom, Allan, narr. "Allan Bloom on Plato's Apology of Socrates 1 ." Mr. Allan Bloom. You Tube, 23

Feb. 2009. web. 22 Feb 2012. .

Bloom, Allan, narr.. "Allan Bloom on Plato's Apology of Socrates 2 ." Mr. Allan Bloom. You Tube, 23

Feb. 2009. web. 22 Feb 2012. .
View Full Essay

Greek and Indian Art From Ancient Times

Words: 1306 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82703933

Ancient Art from Greece and India: A Comparison

Art is a cultural phenomenon that perpetuates consistently throughout the world. Each time period and culture has its own artistic sensibility, often connected to the cultural, political and religious values of the time. The art of ancient Greece and India is no exception to this. While significant changes occurred throughout the centuries that could be consider "ancient," a comparison of certain works shows the similarities and differences between what could be essentially regarded as the Western and Eastern cultures of ancient times.

In ancient India, for example, art tended towards being largely introspective. Hence, environmental and political elements did not play as important a role as the internal elements of mind and introspection. In terms of iconography, therefore, religious and metaphysical concerns take precedence over influences of culture and environment. In terms of this, the Indian idea of Pramana, or "creation of…… [Read More]

References

Ancient-Greece.org. (2015). Athena Nike Parapet Frieze. Retrieved from: http://ancient-greece.org/art/athena-nike-parapet.html

Caroun.com (2015). Ancient Indian Art. Retrieved from: http://www.caroun.com/art/pakistan/ancientindianart.html

Pisani, L. (2013, Aug. 6). The Ajanta Cave Paintings. The Global Dispatches. Retrieved from: http://www.theglobaldispatches.com/articles/the-ajanta-cave-paintings
View Full Essay

Ancient Athens Was a Democracy

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83065849



Q2. Plato believed that, just as skilled craftsman should confine themselves to making shoes and warriors should confine themselves to fighting, only 'the best' should rule. Individuals with great aptitudes to be philosophers should be selected and taught to lead the people, and leadership by the majority was dangerous. The Platonic 'Guardians' would be taken away from their family at birth and given special training by other philosophers, so they would know how to govern. This reflects Socrates' notion of philosophy and leadership as specialized skills rather than something that can be practiced by all individuals equally effectively, as the concept of Athenian democracy would suggest. For Socrates, justice is not based in the concept of giving each citizen equal opportunities; justice means creating a perfect society. Making sure that the 'perfect' cobblers make shoes, the perfect warriors defend the city, and the best minds rule on earth makes society…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Googlization and the Reference Desk

Words: 4159 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50185713

Another aspect that the search engines use to line up web pages, besides the frequency of the characters, is the appropriateness of the topic i.e. A search on "elephants" will not yield the same results as a search on "elephants in Africa" or "animal rights: elephants (Valenza, 1997). This difference has to be explained by the librarian-teachers to the students in the initial stages of their online research endeavors so that when they conduct research on a more vast topic, they have to ability to break own the topic and concentrate on the words and areas that will yield the most relevant information at the quickest pace. It is important to note here that the accuracy of a the use of words is also part of knowledge management as it requires an individual to first manage the little knowledge he has on the topic, i.e. distinguishing the important aspects for…… [Read More]

References:

Agosto, D.E. (2002). Bounded rationality and satisfying in young people's web-based decision making. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 53(1), 16-27.

Chen, S.-H. L. (2003). Searching the online catalog and the World Wide Web. Journal of Educational Media and Library Sciences, 47(1), 29-43.

Gadzella B.M. And Baloglu. (2003). M. High and Low Achieving Education Students on Processing, Retaining and Retrieval of Information. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 30:2.

Hirsh, S.G. (1997). How do children find information on different types of tasks? Children's use of the Science Library Catalog. Library Trends, 45(4), 725-746.
View Full Essay

History of State Formation Prompt

Words: 900 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77685639



Given that Christianity tended to view history as progressive, and Christ's sacrifice and the event of Christendom being the ultimate apex of earlier civilization, the past was often seen as an inferior precursor to the present in a particularly judgmental light -- hence the persecution of certain groups as infidels and outsiders. It is the historian and the anthropologist's duty to unpack such cultural assumptions and to view the world through a less morally-clouded and self-justifying lens.

References

Episode 2: Conquest. (2005). Guns, Germs & Steel. PBS. Retrieved May 31, 2011 at http://www.pbs.org/gunsgermssteel/show/episode2.html

Anthropological research project: Celebrating women anthropologists

URL: http://anthropology.usf.edu/women/index.html

his website catalogues the research of famous women anthropologists throughout the ages. It has a specifically feminist slant, and details the research these women engaged in, along with their personal struggles for recognition in the field. While most people are familiar with the work of Margaret Mead in Samoa,…… [Read More]

This website catalogues the research of famous women anthropologists throughout the ages. It has a specifically feminist slant, and details the research these women engaged in, along with their personal struggles for recognition in the field. While most people are familiar with the work of Margaret Mead in Samoa, Zora Neale Hurston's cataloging of African-American folklore and Dian Fosse and her work with primates, the accomplishments of other pioneering female anthropologists have often been forgotten.

Even during the 19th century, women such as Alice Cunningham Fletcher studied other cultures from an objective anthropological lens. Fletcher acted as a consultant to President Grover Cleveland on the 'Indian Problem,' studied and recorded Native American music, customs, and language, and also acted as an advocate for the restoration of Native American land. Ellen Irene Diggs, an anthropologist who studied with W.E.B. DuBois researched, proofread and footnoted DuBois' work Black Reconstruction in America, 1860-1880. She was one of the first anthropologists to study the relationship of African and Cuban history and heritage.

Mary Nichol Douglas Leakey, a biological anthropologist, had no formal university training. Yet she discovered the skull of Proconsul africanus in Kenya 1947-48, the skull of an early human prototype Zinjanthropus in Olduvai Gorge in 1959, and 3.5 million-year-old footprints in Laetoli in 1976. These discoveries made major contributions to the understanding of the development of humanity. Leakey's work and the work of other women is testimony to the fact that even when denied a full range of opportunities to practice their craft, female anthropologists have used the opportunities they have been given to shine and make major contributions to the advancement of knowledge. Women anthropologists, as reflective of their marginalized place in society, have also been apt to fuse social activism with their discipline. They have used knowledge as a method of advocacy, and made education of the public a means to restore dignity and justice to the social perceptions of marginalized peoples.
View Full Essay

Role of Deities

Words: 691 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21824592

role of deities in "The Iliad," by Homer, the poetry of Sappho, and "Pericles Funeral Oration," by Thucydides. Specifically it will discuss how significant the deities are in the three pieces, and why deities played such an important part in ancient literature.

IMPORTANCE of the DEITIES

The Gods (deities) play an extremely important part throughout these three pieces, and through much of ancient literature. The gods were extremely important to the Greeks, who believed they lived atop Mount Olympus, ruled by Zeus, the father and leader of the Gods. In "The Iliad," Achilles often turns to the Gods to aid him in battle and in his personal life. People believed the Gods could influence everything in their lives, and so often asked them for help and advice, as Achilles does. "I came to see if I could check this temper of yours, / Sent from heaven by the white-armed goddess…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Homer. The Iliad. Translated by Stanley Lombardo. Indianapolis, in:, 1997.

Robinson, David M. Sappho and Her Influence. Boston: Marshall Jones Company, 1924.

Thucydides. Pericles Funeral Oration [book online]. 6 June 1999, accessed 16 Oct. 2002;

http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/GREECE/PERICLES.HTM;Internet.